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Medicine

Medicine (50) at IgMin Research

Our mission is to foster interdisciplinary dialogue and accelerate the advancement of knowledge across a wide spectrum of scientific domains.


Discover the intricacies of the human body and its ailments through the prism of Medical Sciences. Journey through disciplines like Physiology, Pharmacology, and Anatomy, and explore the frontiers of Molecular Medicine and Immunology. Engage in the discourse on Clinical Trials and Health Economics, and unravel the complexities of Pain Management and Infectious Diseases.

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Latest Articles (15)

Research Article Article ID: igmin190
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy among Self-reported Newly Diagnosed Diabetics
by Shweta Walia

Introduction: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) poses a significant threat to individuals with diabetes, leading to visual impairment and blindness if not promptly addressed. This study focuses on the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among self-reported newly diagnosed diabetics.Material method: This is a prospective study o...n 200 self-reported newly diagnosed diabetics from April 2022 to May 2023. Patient data, including complaints, diabetes duration, family history, hypertension, and therapy details, were comprehensively analyzed. Complete Ocular examinations including best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, slit lamp examination, fundus examinations, and Fundus fluorescein angiography were done. Diabetic Retinopathy was graded using a modified ETDRS grading system. Laboratory investigations included complete blood count, fasting and postprandial blood sugar, lipid profile, renal function test, and Hb1AC levels, providing a thorough assessment of patients’ ocular and systemic health.Result: Out of the 200 diabetics, 43.5% had diabetic retinopathy, with a slightly higher prevalence in males (44.64%) compared to females. The age group 50 - 59 had the highest prevalence (74.19%), and Hindus, Muslims, and other communities showed comparable percentages. Family history and hypertension were significant factors, with 88% of those with a family history developing retinopathy. NPDR was predominant (87.35%), while 12.64% had PDR. Clinically Significant Macular Edema (CSME) was present in 59.77%, with 80.76% of these cases having concomitant hypertension. Conclusion: The study emphasizes the imperative for early detection and comprehensive management of diabetic retinopathy among newly diagnosed diabetics. Age, gender, family history, and hypertension emerge as crucial determinants, advocating for integrated care and targeted screening programs to safeguard vision.

Ophthalmology Family MedicineInternal Medicine
Research Article Article ID: igmin188
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

A Study to Determine the Reason for Lower Pregnancy Rates in Younger Women with Diminished Oocyte Reserve-less Chance of Implanting vs. Fetal Demise
by Jerome H CheckBrooke Neumann, Diane L Check and Michael Sobel

Most studies find lower live-delivered pregnancy rates (LDPRs) following in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in women with diminished oocyte reserve (DOR) vs. normal oocyte reserve (NOR) even in a younger population. How much of a discrepancy may depend on the degree of oocyte depletion in the DOR group and... the follicular stimulation protocol. Some fertility specialists favor an FSH receptor up-regulation technique as the protocol to attain the maximum LDPRs in women with DOR. The objective of this study was to compare chemical, clinical, and LDPRs following IVF-ET to determine if the main time of embryo loss is very early, as evidenced by the largest discrepancy occurring in attaining even a chemical pregnancy, and/ or a large discrepancy between a chemical pregnancy and attaining a clinical pregnancy (ultrasound evidence of a gestational sac) or later losses as evidenced by showing a greater loss rate from clinical evidence of pregnancy to live delivery in those with DOR compared to NOR. Overall, the DOR group, with a mean serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level of 0.42 ng/mL, had 50% as much chance to have an LDPR/transfer as women with NOR (AMH of 4.66) despite the same number of day 3 embryos transferred. The main reduction in LDPRs occurred from embryo transfer failing to attain a positive clinical pregnancy in the DOR group. The least discrepancy was from attaining a clinical pregnancy to live delivery. Thus, for NOR from positive pregnancy test 59% of this younger age group will have a live delivery vs. 50% for DOR. Thus, the reduction in LDPRS/transfer in young women with DOR vs. NOR seems mostly very early so the DOR group does not even attain a positive serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level. This suggests that this inferiority in attaining a live delivery may be related to aneuploidy involving large chromosomes or a marked decrease in the mitochondrial DNA of the embryo.

Gynecology
Research Article Article ID: igmin187
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Examining the Causal Connection between Lipid-lowering Medications and Malignant Meningiomas through Drug-target Mendelian Randomization Analysis
by Liantai SongXiaoyan Guo, Wenhui Zhang, Mengjie Li, Xinyi Wu, Ziqian Kou, Yuxin Wang, Zigeng Ren and Qian Xu

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the causal link between the use of statins, a type of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, and the risk of developing malignant meningiomas, which are aggressive and recurrent tumors of the central nervous system with limited treatment options.M...ethods: Using Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis, the study explored the relationship between genetic variants related to the expression of lipid-lowering drug targets (HMGCR, PCSK9, NPC1L1, and APOB) and malignant meningiomas. The analysis utilized data from Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) databases, with a focus on the genetic homogeneity of the Finnish population. Instrumental variables for the MR analysis were derived from significant eQTLs for the mentioned drug targets.Results: The MR analysis found a significant association between genetic variants linked to HMGCR inhibitor (statin) exposure and a reduced risk of malignant meningiomas. Specifically, an increased expression of the HMGCR gene in the blood was associated with lower susceptibility to malignant meningiomas (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.05 - 6.31; p = 0.039). No significant associations were observed for other lipid-lowering drug targets.Conclusion: Preliminary evidence suggests that statin use may lower the risk of developing malignant meningiomas, indicating a potential therapeutic benefit for managing this type of cancer. However, further research, including clinical trials, is necessary to confirm these findings and understand the mechanisms behind the protective effect of statins against malignant meningiomas.

Pharmacology Molecular Medicine
Review Article Article ID: igmin185
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Diagnostic Challenges in Pancreatic Tumors
by Ionuţ Simion ComanElena Violeta Coman, Costin George Florea, Teodora Elena Tudose, Cosmin Burleanu, Anwar Erchid and Valentin Titus Grigorean

Background: Pancreatic tumors have a large diversity, with an increasing incidence and mortality. Although the diagnosis methods have improved in recent years, establishing a diagnosis and a histopathological type of pancreatic tumor can still pose a challenge. Aim: We propose to present a concise list of difficul...ties regarding the clinical, biological, and imagistic diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. Key information: The clinical manifestations of pancreatic tumors depend on their location and size, on the presence of metastatic lesions, but the difficulty of orientation towards this diagnosis is determined by the fact that most lesions are asymptomatic or present in the early stages of non-specific symptoms. The usual biological parameters are non-specific in pancreatic tumors in the early stages, but studies are underway regarding a series of biomarkers, genetic micro-sequences, or inorganic nanomaterials that could be used in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancers. An essential stage in the diagnosis of pancreatic tumors is represented by imaging investigations, which are associated with endoscopic and tumor biopsy procedures and can outline a picture regarding the presence of the tumor at the level of the pancreas, the relationship with the neighboring organs, the nature of the tumor and the histopathological type. There are a series of indications and limitations regarding each of these investigations, trying to develop various algorithms for the diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. Conclusion: The medical research conducted to develop new diagnostic procedures has the objective of ensuring an early diagnosis of pancreatic tumors, in a stage that offers the best chances of recovery for the patient.

Gastroenterology
Case Report Article ID: igmin181
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Peritoneal Carcinomatosis from Ovarian Cancer: A Case Report
by Andrea González De Godos, Enrique Asensio Diaz, Pilar Pinto Fuentes, Baltasar Pérez Saborido and David Pacheco Sánchez

Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in women. More than half of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage, usually due to the locoregional spread of peritoneal carcinomatosis. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman who suffered from constitutional syndrome and abdomi...nal distention. The imaging tests revealed two large, vascularized, and heterogeneous masses that depended on both ovaries. Bilateral adnexectomy was performed and the result of the anatomopathological study was endometrioid carcinoma moderately differentiated. The patient was treated according to the latest recommendations of the NCCN guidelines. A combination of systemic chemotherapy and cytoreductive surgery has been the standard treatment since the mid-1990s. However, a combination of hyperthermic intravenous and intraperitoneal chemotherapy may reduce plasma toxicity and increase therapeutic effectiveness.

Emergency Medicine
Mini Review Article ID: igmin162
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Threat to Human and Animal Health Caused by Mycotoxins and Masked Mycotoxins Occurring in Food and Feed
by Anna Pikulicka and Wiesław Barabasz

Fungi, and especially mold fungi, play a very important role in natural environments, as well as in the food industry for the production of many specialized products. However, many of them, under favorable conditions, are capable of producing toxic compounds called mycotoxins. Many of them have an adverse effect on the... growth and development of all groups of organisms, including humans. Mycotoxins can appear in all food products and animal feed. Mycotoxins accumulated in food of plant and animal origin and consumed by humans can accumulate in various tissues and organs, which results in disorders in their functioning and may cause cancer. Plants have the ability to defend themselves against mycotoxins by neutralizing them as a result of the glycosidation process. Mycotoxins neutralized in this way are called “masked mycotoxins”, which are not toxic to plants, but after entering the body of animals or humans in the digestive tract, they return back to their original toxic form. Let’s appeal and spread knowledge about mycotoxins because they pose a constant threat to the health of people and farm animals.

Environmental Health
Review Article Article ID: igmin161
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Preventing Rectal Toxicity in Prostate Cancer: Diet and Supplement Alternative to Enemas or Rectal Spacer
by Fabrizio Piro, Daria Cosentino, Ugo Piro, Gabriella Tocci and Luigi Marafioti

Background: Rectal toxicity is an important side effect of prostate cancer irradiation affecting 25% of patients. The role of dosimetric variables has a set of dose-volume constraints and curves to estimate the risk of rectal damage. The rectum position at the time of CT planning is different from the position during r...adiotherapy. Three methods are available to achieve optimal rectum position: enema; prostate cancer spacer; fiber-/fat-free diet. Methods: A 70.2 Gray radiation divided into 26 hypo-fractions was administered to 115 patients with prostate cancer by VMAT referred to a single center in Italy. To empty the rectum, all patients were administered a fiber-/fat-free diet and those with Eating Disorders (ED) were also added with activated charcoal (2 tablets/day) and a macrogol-based medical device (2 sachets/day). During treatment, the volumetric amount of rectum in the target was measured by comparing control-CT with simulation-CT, and acute toxicity was also checked. Results: The rectum position during control-CT in diet-only patients (29) predicted toxicity recorded during treatment, while in the ED group rectum position was adherent to position during simulations. Rectal volume target > 0.25 cc receiving a dose > V70 caused acute G3 toxicity that attenuated or worsened with rectal displacement. Acute rectal toxicity occurred in 6/29 (20.68%) patients (1 G3, 5 G1) in the diet-only group, while only in 1/86 (1.16%) patients (G1) in the ED group. No chronic toxicity was recorded in either group. Conclusion: Prostate cancer patients treated with VMAT, diet, charcoal, and macrogol emptied the rectum optimally and reduced incidence and severity of acute rectal toxicity, also with benefit on late toxicity.

Radiology
Review Article Article ID: igmin160
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Breast Cancer: The Road to a Personalized Prevention
by Zaira Grattagliano and Asia Grattagliano

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. It can be spread when cancer cells get into the blood or lymph system and then are carried to other parts of the body. As it is one of the leading causes of death among women, this study aims to identify the most relevant risk factors for breast cancer... through several prevention methods for early detection. The social impact of breast cancer is so strong that the World Health Organization (WHO) has established 19 October as International Breast Cancer Day. The pink ribbon is the symbol of this important day worldwide. The objective is precisely to raise awareness among the population about the disease and promote access to timely and effective diagnoses, checks, and treatments.Good prevention should be carried out through behavior or lifestyle modifications (e.g., diet, physical activity, alcohol limitation, etc.). Although, certain risk factors cannot be modified (e.g., aging, family history). Screenings are a fundamental tool to deal with breast cancer, even if sometimes they are not enough as in the case of interval cancers or in cases of particularly ambiguous presentation. Worldwide organizations recommend screening by means of ultrasound, mammography, and magnetic resonance, with appropriate follow-up for an abnormal screening test. To avoid overdiagnosis and overtreatment that can lead to long-term complications and false negatives, these screening differs by recommended ages and frequency. Identification of women at risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is also recommended with a referral for genetic testing and, in the presence of dubious lesions, a biopsy is needed. In order to fight this disease, is important to act on time, so, information is fundamental. First of all, the female population should be conscious of risk factors and of the importance of breast examinations from a young age, lastly, they should be aware of the possibility of joining programs of free screening.

Clinical Medicine Obstetrics OncologyGenetics
Brief Communication Article ID: igmin159
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Fibrin Contributes to an Improvement of an in vitro Wound Repair Model using Fibroblast-populated Collagen Lattices
by Mario Chopin-DoroteoAldo Montes de Oca-Delgado, Rosa M Salgado and Edgar Krötzsch

Incisional acute wounds of the skin are characterized by a rapid biomechanical response by stromal cell contraction that joins the wound lips through the fibrin cloth. In this work, we have performed an in vitro model using Fibroblast-Populated Collagen Lattices (FPCLs) that partially mimic that physiological process. ...Injured FPCLs under relaxed or stressed conditions were evaluated over time, and cross-sections of the lattices were stained with picrosirius red. Wounds filled with fibrin in relaxed FPCLs were closed earlier than controls, the fibrillar pattern of the collagen lattice was different between the wound and the edges of the lattice. On the other hand, stressed FPCLs did not close wounds, even those filled with fibrin, because the tension generated from the lattice borders maintained high tension towards the wound. Controls or fibrin-treated stressed FPCLs, showed high tension in the wound matrix, characterized by the high packing of collagen observed like yellow-red birefringent fibers when stained by picrosirius red. Despite wounds that remain open, fibrin-treated FPCLs exhibited less wound area than controls. With this work, we have demonstrated that FPCL models can be used to study wound closure, mainly when they are improved with other elements of the wound environment that allow us to analyze the biological process.

Dermatology Molecular MedicinePathology
Case Report Article ID: igmin154
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

A Rare Case of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Smooth Muscle Tumor of Uncertain Malignant Potential (STUMP)
by Sakshi Zawar, Priyanka Chaudhari, Viraj Borgaonkar and Utpal Gaikwad

Smooth muscle tumours are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the vulva and vagina, yet their infrequency is demonstrated by the prevalence of published reports as individual cases or small case series.This article reports a case of a 42-year-old woman who presented with apparently recurrent vulvovaginal leiomyoma an...d a past history of surgical excisions. Histopathology revealed Smooth Muscle Tumor of Uncertain Malignant Potential (STUMP).

Pathology Obstetrics OncologyGynecology
Research Article Article ID: igmin146
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Lifestyle and Well-being among Portuguese Firefighters
by Laura CarmonaRaquel Pinheiro, Joana Faria-Anjos, Sónia Namorado and Maria José Chambel

Background: Firefighters are subject to a variety of stressors, hence the importance of equipping them with resources that contribute to the management of these stressors. Aims: Considering that a healthy lifestyle is one of these resources, this study aimed to characterize the lifestyle of a Portuguese firefighte...rs sample, rate their general lifestyle level, and analyze its association with their subjective well-being (i.e., flourishing). Methods: A sample of 860 firefighters responded to an adapted version of the FANTASTIC. Results: The results showed that most (72.8%) had a good lifestyle. However, regarding each habit, a significant percentage had bad habits: sometimes consuming high-calorie foods (81.2%); sometimes having difficulties sleeping (50.9%); drinking more than 4 - 5 alcoholic drinks on the same occasion (43.9%); and exceeding their ideal weight by more than 8 kg (29.7%). However, a marked percentage also had healthy habits: having people to talk to (71%) and giving and receiving affection (63.5%); exercising at least once a week (81.5%); not smoking (63.9%); almost always eating healthily (26.7%); sometimes sleeping well (50.2%); and managing stress (56.7%). As expected, the assumption that firefighters’ lifestyle is related to their flourishing was supported. Conclusion: A healthy lifestyle is an important resource to ensure the firefighters’ flourishing and should be a part of the day-to-day life of these professionals.

Occupational Medicine Emergency MedicineEnvironmental Health
Mini Review Article ID: igmin141
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Association and New Therapy Perspectives in Post-Stroke Aphasia with Hand Motor Dysfunction
by Shuo XuChengfang Liang, Shaofan Chen, Zhiming Huang and Haoqing Jiang

Post-stroke aphasia and hand movement dysfunction are common and disabling conditions. Observations indicate that most patients with post-stroke aphasia also suffer from hand movement dysfunction. Research in human evolution, behavior, and neuroscience has revealed a strong connection between language function and hand...-motor function, with the latter playing a critical role in language use. Consequently, there is an urgent need for the development of new, comprehensive, and efficient rehabilitation methods for post-stroke aphasia that is accompanied by hand dysfunction. One promising approach involves investigating the shared neural networks between language and hand function as a foundation for novel treatment methods. This article aims to review the current state of clinical research on comprehensive treatments for stroke-induced aphasia and hand dysfunction, as well as to explore their underlying neural mechanisms. The results of this study may provide a valuable reference for the advancement of treatment technologies that effectively address both dysfunctions and enhance clinical outcomes.

Neurology Rehabilitation Medicine
Editorial Article ID: igmin139
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Contribution of Medical Periodicals to the Development of Pediatric Science in Modern Conditions
by Nikolay Shchapov

For me personally, high technologies in pediatrics are not just new opportunities for solving regular professional problems.

Paediatrics
Research Article Article ID: igmin138
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Exploring Upper Limb Kinematics in Limited Vision Conditions: Preliminary Insights from 3D Motion Analysis and IMU Data
by Artemis Zarkadoula, Themistoklis Tsatalas, George Bellis, Paris Papaggelos, Evangelia Vlahogianni, Stefanos Moustos, Eirini Koukourava and Dimitrios Tsaopoulos

This study examined upper limb kinematics under simulated visually impaired conditions. By investigating how upper limb movements adapt in these circumstances, we aimed to gain insights that may prove valuable for both healthy populations and those with clinical conditions. Data, including 3D marker-based motion captur...e and accelerometer readings, were collected from seven healthy volunteers walking on a treadmill at 1.5 m/s under two conditions: without glasses (NG) and with stroboscopic glasses (G). Each walking condition lasted 2 minutes, and two 10-second recordings were analyzed from the midpoint of each session. Contrary to our hypothesis, simulated visual impairment with stroboscopic eyewear at 6Hz did not statistically affect upper limb kinematics, specifically in terms of wrist acceleration and hand distance in the frontal plane. Future research should explore varied visual impairment conditions, extend task durations, and investigate the relationship between subjective gait difficulties and biomechanical data.

Neurology Rehabilitation MedicinePsychiatry
Research Article Article ID: igmin116
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Wishful Thinking or Valuable Forecasts? The Value of Policy Rate Predictions in Sweden
by Åsa Hansson

Economists often provide predictions about future interest or policy rates. In contrast to stock market predictions, these forecasts are typically regarded seriously and presented with a degree of accuracy. This paper explores whether placing more confidence in policy rate predictions than stock market predictions is r...easonable. It begins by examining historical policy rates predictions in Sweden, comparing them to actual rates to assess their accuracy. The paper then delves into the discussion of how costs of mispredictions, such as sudden and unexpected policy rate increases, can and should be addressed. Despite the Central Bank making predictions within confidence intervals and the banking sector regulating individuals’ borrowing, the burden of unpredicted rate increases falls almost entirely on individuals. The paper addresses whether that is reasonable.

Health Policy Health InformaticsHealth Economics