Sub-Types of Original Research Articles
The realm of Original Research is broad and varied. Our multidisciplinary journal, IgMin Research – STEM, accommodates a range of sub-types of Original Research, providing a rich canvas for scientific exploration and discourse. The following are the sub-types that are entertained by our journal:
1. Experimental Research
Criteria for Acceptance
- Relevance: The study must make a significant contribution to a specific field within STEM, expanding on existing literature.
- Innovation: It should bring forth new knowledge or a novel approach that can pave the way for further research.
- Scientific Rigor: Employ rigorous experimental designs and statistical methods.
- Clarity: Clear articulation of methods, results, and their implications.
- Ethical Considerations: The study must adhere to ethical standards, including informed consent, if human or animal subjects are involved.
2. Observational Research
Criteria for Acceptance
- Relevance: Address pertinent questions that add to existing knowledge.
- Innovation: Propose fresh insights into the phenomenon under observation.
- Scientific Rigor: A structured methodology and statistical rigor are vital.
- Clarity: Unambiguous presentation of the observed data and its interpretation.
- Ethical Considerations: Particularly for observational studies involving human subjects, ethical clearance is essential.
3. Clinical Trials
Criteria for Acceptance
- Relevance: The trial should ideally fill a knowledge gap in medical science.
- Innovation: New or improved treatments should be tested against existing standards.
- Scientific Rigor: Randomized controlled trials are given preference, but other rigorous methodologies may also be acceptable.
- Clarity: Detailed descriptions of trial design, participant selection, and outcomes are required.
- Ethical Considerations: Must adhere to ethical guidelines, including clinical trial registration and informed consent.
4. Field Studies
Criteria for Acceptance
- Relevance: Provide valuable field-specific insights that have broader applications or implications.
- Innovation: Unique setting or novel field techniques can make a study stand out.
- Scientific Rigor: Authentic data collection and analytical techniques must be applied.
- Clarity: Clear presentation of the study setting, participants, and outcomes.
- Ethical Considerations: Must respect the environment, culture, or community involved.
5. Laboratory Studies
Criteria for Acceptance
- Relevance: Aim to solve a clear scientific problem or question.
- Innovation: Novel methods, instruments, or applications should be clearly outlined.
- Scientific Rigor: Ensure controlled conditions and repeatable experiments.
- Clarity: Each step of the methodology and all results must be clearly described.
- Ethical Considerations: Safety protocols and ethical standards must be maintained.
6. Cross-Sectional Studies
Criteria for Acceptance
- Relevance: The study must be timely and fill a current knowledge gap.
- Innovation: Uncover new correlations or patterns in the data.
- Scientific Rigor: Employ reliable data collection methods and statistical analysis.
- Clarity: Clear definitions of variables, the population studied, and methods employed.
- Ethical Considerations: Informed consent and data privacy are key considerations.
7. Longitudinal Studies
Criteria for Acceptance
- Relevance: The study should provide insights that cannot be obtained from cross-sectional studies.
- Innovation: Longitudinal tracking can yield new perspectives on change over time.
- Scientific Rigor: Maintain consistent methods and quality data collection across all time points.
- Clarity: Clearly describe the time periods, intervals, and any dropout rates.
- Ethical Considerations: Continued informed consent and ethical oversight must be maintained throughout the study.
Each sub-type requires unique considerations for methodology and data presentation. However, the fundamental criteria for acceptance and basic structure remain consistent across all types.
Preparing the Manuscript
The purpose of this section is to inform potential authors about the rigorous criteria that submissions for "Original Research" must meet to be considered for publication in IgMin Research – STEM. These criteria apply across all sub-types of articles, whether they are Experimental Research, Observational Research, Clinical Trials, Field Studies, Laboratory Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, or Longitudinal Studies.
1. Relevance to the Field
All submitted research must show a clear and direct relevance to current issues, challenges, or topics in the STEM fields. The research question posed by the authors should aim to fill a gap in existing literature or offer a novel perspective on an existing issue.
One of the key markers for acceptance is the innovative aspect of the research. This innovation could be in the form of a new research method, a novel application of an existing method, or new insights that contribute to the field. Research that repackages known information without adding new insights will likely not meet the acceptance criteria.
3. Scientific Rigor
The methodological aspect of the submission needs to be beyond reproach. The research should be conducted in a manner that is ethical, reliable, and valid. All data must be accurately represented, statistically sound, and interpretations made in a balanced and fair manner. A comprehensive methodology section that allows for the replication of the study is essential for articles in this category.
4. Clarity in Presentation
Research, no matter how groundbreaking, needs to be presented in a manner that is accessible and understandable. Clarity in writing, the logical flow of ideas, well-structured sentences, and professional language are all critical in conveying your research effectively. Manuscripts that require excessive revisions for language and clarity are less likely to be accepted.
5. Ethical Considerations
It is of utmost importance that all research submitted for publication adheres to the highest ethical standards. This includes, but is not limited to, ensuring informed consent, maintaining participant anonymity, and securing data. Research involving human subjects or animals must have received approval from an appropriate ethics board.
Besides these fundamental criteria, there are other aspects to consider which cut across all sub-types:
1. Data Availability
Authors should be prepared to share their raw data as supplementary material or in a recognized data repository. Transparency in this regard increases the reliability and credibility of your work.
2. Conflicts of Interest
Any potential conflicts of interest, be they financial, institutional, or personal, should be declared upfront. Failing to disclose this information may result in the manuscript being rejected.
Given the interdisciplinary nature of STEM fields, research that involves collaborations between different fields, applications to real-world problems, or engagement with non-academic sectors can be considered as an additional strength.
Final Thoughts on Acceptance Criteria
Meeting these criteria of acceptance does not guarantee publication, as all articles are subject to a rigorous peer-review process. However, addressing these points will strengthen the likelihood of a positive review. They serve as a guide to the elements that reviewers and the editorial board consider crucial in evaluating a submission's suitability for publication in IgMin Research – STEM.
By following these guidelines, authors can align their research and presentation thereof with the values and standards of IgMin Research – STEM. Adherence to these criteria will not only streamline the review process but also enhance the scientific integrity and impact of the published research.
Guidelines for Article Type
To be accepted, articles must adhere to a set of rigorous standards to ensure they meet the scientific and ethical requirements of IgMin Research – STEM | A Multidisciplinary Journal. Below are the key guidelines for each article type:
1. Peer-Review Process
All submitted manuscripts undergo a double-blind peer-review process. This entails sending the manuscript to experts in the relevant field who are not aware of the author's identity. Authors should expect constructive feedback and may be required to revise and resubmit their manuscripts. The goal is to ensure that the study's conclusions are backed by well-executed research and thorough analysis.
2. Format Adherence
The manuscript must adhere to the specific structure outlined in the "Back-Bone Structure of Article Type" section. This includes organizing the manuscript with appropriate headings, sub-headings, and sections for clarity and coherence. Failure to comply may result in manuscript rejection or a delayed review process.
3. Language Quality
Language clarity is essential for effective scientific communication. All manuscripts should be submitted in error-free English. Authors whose first language is not English should consider seeking professional language editing services prior to submission. Poor language may be grounds for rejection.
4. Originality Check
The journal employs plagiarism detection software to ensure the originality of each submission. Any form of plagiarism will result in immediate rejection and may lead to further actions. Therefore, make sure to cite all sources, data, and text that are not your own.
5. Data Availability
For transparency and replicability, authors must make their research data available, either within the manuscript or as supplementary files. This will enable other researchers to verify and build upon your work. If data cannot be shared for legal or ethical reasons, this must be clearly stated.
6. Reporting Guidelines
It is imperative that your article conforms to recognized reporting guidelines to assure methodological rigor. Depending on your research design, here are some guidelines your article should comply with:
1. CONSORT for Clinical Trials
The CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) guidelines are designed to improve the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials. Key aspects to include are a flow diagram of the trial and a checklist of essential elements such as the trial's design, analysis, and interpretation.
2. STROBE for Observational Studies
STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) aims to enhance the quality of reporting of observational studies. This involves providing a comprehensive explanation of the study design, setting, participants, variables, data sources, and statistical methods. Adherence to STROBE helps to clarify the potential biases, confounding factors, and generalizability of a study.
3. PRISMA for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) is aimed at systematic reviews and meta-analyses. It requires an elaborate methodology section and recommends the inclusion of a flowchart that outlines the process of study selection.
If your research doesn't fit into any of these categories, please consult subject-specific guidelines like MOOSE for meta-analyses of observational studies, STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy, and so forth.
Ensuring that your article adheres to these guidelines not only adds to the credibility of your research but also enhances its utility in scientific discourse. Non-compliance can be a significant factor in the rejection of a manuscript, regardless of the quality of the data or findings.
Back-Bone Structure of Article Type
The structure of an article is the skeleton upon which the meat of your research hangs. A well-structured article not only directs the reader through your arguments effectively but also serves as a guide during the writing process. Below are the standard sections that should be present in all sub-types of Original Research articles.
The title should be concise yet informative, typically no longer than 20 words. Avoid using acronyms or abbreviations. The aim is to give a snapshot of what the article entails, so clarity and precision are crucial.
The abstract should be a succinct summary of the article, ideally between 150 and 250 words. It must provide the purpose of the study, methodology employed, key findings, and main conclusions. An abstract is often the first thing a reader encounters, and a well-written abstract will influence whether the rest of your article will be read.
Include 5-10 keywords that are relevant to the study. These terms should help make your article easily discoverable in database searches.
4. Introduction or Background
The introduction serves two main purposes: it provides background on the subject, and it outlines the focus of the research, often ending with the research question or hypothesis. It is critical to cite relevant literature in the introduction to provide context for your research.
This section is crucial for the reproducibility of your study. It should include the study design, data collection methods, statistical analysis, and any software used. The more transparent and detailed you are, the more credible your research will be.
Results should be presented in a logical sequence, clearly and concisely. Use subheadings to divide different types of results if necessary. Charts, graphs, and tables can be used to aid in the presentation of results but should not replace narrative text.
Here, interpret your results in the context of the research question and existing literature. Highlight the significance and implications of your findings. Also, discuss any limitations and make suggestions for future research.
The conclusion should be brief and directly tied to the research question or hypothesis. Avoid introducing new topics or arguments. Summarize the key points and implications of your research.
This section should mention any funding, grants, or assistance received during the study. It is also the place to thank people who contributed to the research but do not qualify for authorship.
All cited works should be listed in this section, adhering to the NLM (National Library of Medicine) style. Ensure that all references are relevant and current.
Specific Formatting Guidelines
The formatting guidelines outlined here are crucial for a streamlined review and publication process. Adherence to these guidelines is mandatory. Failure to comply will result in delays or possible rejection of the submitted manuscript.
1. Text Formatting
Use Times New Roman as the font, with a font size of 12 points for the body text and 14 points for headings.
2. Line Spacing
The manuscript must be double-spaced to allow for comments and corrections during the review process.
All margins (left, right, top, and bottom) should be 1 inch.
Text should be left-aligned. Do not justify the text; it creates uneven spacing between words.
Indent the first line of each new paragraph by 0.5 inches.
6. Page Numbers
Place page numbers in the top-right corner of each page, beginning with the title page.
7. Sections and Subsections
Use clear and concise headings for all sections and subsections. The use of numbered subheadings is encouraged for clarity.
Turn off automatic hyphenation to ensure that words appear in their full form.
9. Bullet Points and Numbered Lists
If you’re listing elements, use bullet points for non-sequential items and numbered lists for sequential items.
1. Numbering and Titles:
Tables should be numbered consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text. Include a brief but explanatory title above each table.
2. Font and Size:
The text within tables should be in Times New Roman, font size 10, and should be single-spaced.
Tables should be embedded in the text at the appropriate points, not collected at the end of the article.
4. Column and Row Labels:
Clearly label all columns and rows, and use horizontal lines to separate different sections of the table.
1. Numbering and Labels:
Figures should be numbered consecutively and should include descriptive captions.
2. File Format:
Figures should be submitted in high-resolution JPEG, PNG, or TIFF formats.
3. Figure Legends:
Provide legends below the figures, and ensure they explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
All references should follow the National Library of Medicine (NLM) citation style.
2. In-text Citations:
Use numbers in square brackets to indicate each citation, and list them in the references section in the order they appear in the text.
3. Reference List:
Provide a detailed list of references at the end of the manuscript, adhering strictly to NLM style guidelines.
The Author Instructions section aims to provide a comprehensive set of guidelines to aid you in preparing your manuscript for submission to "IgMin Research – STEM | A Multidisciplinary Journal." This segment outlines the essentials for an organized, well-structured manuscript that conforms to the journal's specific requirements.
1. Additional Guidelines
1. Article Preparatory Guidelines:
Please take the time to thoroughly review our Article Preparatory Guidelines. These guidelines will help you understand what is expected of your manuscript regarding structure, format, and content. Adherence to these guidelines is mandatory and will expedite the review process.
2. Language and Grammar:
To ensure consistency and clarity, all manuscripts should be written in academic English. It's advisable to have the manuscript proofread by a colleague proficient in English or a professional editing service.
2. Mandatory Submission List
1. Covering Letter:
A covering letter must accompany your submission. The letter should briefly state the significance of the research and its relevance to the scope of the journal.
The main document should follow the prescribed structure, including tables and panels where necessary.
Figures should be high resolution and submitted as separate files. Make sure to label these clearly and refer to them in the manuscript.
4. Author Statement Form:
Include a signed and dated Author Statement Form declaring all authors have agreed to the submission and subsequent revisions or retractions.
5. Declaration of Interests and Source of Funding Statements:
Authors must disclose any conflicts of interest and all funding sources that supported the research.
3. Ethical Compliance
Authors are responsible for ensuring that manuscripts involving human or animal studies comply with relevant ethical guidelines and institutional or national research ethics committee approvals.
4. Data Sharing and Reproducibility
Manuscripts must include a section on the availability of data and materials. Data should be accessible in a recognized data repository, and the manuscript should offer a clear path for replicating results.
5. Manuscript Revisions
Should the manuscript be returned for revisions, it is the corresponding author's responsibility to submit the revised manuscript and respond to reviewers' comments within the stipulated timeframe.
6. Peer Review Process
The journal adheres to a rigorous double-blind peer review process. Authors will be notified of acceptance, revision, or rejection via email.
7. Preprint Policy
Manuscripts that have been made available as preprints will be considered for publication. However, authors should disclose this during the submission process.
8. Article Processing Charges (APC)
The journal operates on an open-access model, which may involve Article Processing Charges (APCs). Authors will be informed of any applicable charges upon acceptance.
9. Copyright and Licensing
Upon acceptance, authors will be required to complete a copyright transfer agreement. The work will be published under a Creative Commons license, allowing for maximum visibility and impact.
10. After Publication
Authors will receive a link to the published article and are encouraged to share this widely. The journal will also undertake various methods to promote the article to a broader audience.
11. Withdrawal Policy
Should you decide to withdraw your manuscript after submission, notify the editorial office immediately. Charges may apply if the review process has commenced.
By adhering to the above guidelines and recommendations, you contribute to a more effective, streamlined review process, which benefits not only you as the author but also the broader scientific community.
Important Notes for Authors
1. On Authorship
Authorship is a critical element of scholarly work, representing not only recognition for one's contributions but also accountability for the scientific integrity of the work. Consequently, it is important to clarify how our journal defines authorship.
In line with standard scholarly guidelines, an "author" is defined as someone who has made a substantial intellectual contribution to a study. This includes planning the research design, data collection, data analysis, and manuscript writing. Every author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content.
2. Exclusions: LLMs and Automated Programs
Given the emerging complexities around machine learning and automation, it's imperative to outline our policy on non-human authorship. In our current editorial framework, Large Language Models like ChatGPT do not satisfy the requirements for authorship for several reasons:
1. Lack of Intellectual Contribution
Although LLMs can generate text based on the data they've been trained on, they do not possess the ability to plan a research study, execute experiments, or analyze results. Their outputs are not the result of intellectual processes.
LLMs cannot be accountable for the scientific validity or integrity of the work they contribute to. Authorship comes with the responsibility for the content and its impact—something a machine cannot fulfill.
3. Ethical Concerns
There are ethical dimensions to consider as well, such as the question of consent and the proper crediting of human authors who have contributed to the research and text.
3. The Role LLMs Can Play
While they may not be authors, LLMs like ChatGPT can still play a role in the research process. They can assist in data collection, literature search, and even provide suggestions for writing. However, it is crucial for authors to disclose the use of these models transparently.
1. Disclosure Requirements
If an LLM has been used in any capacity, this must be disclosed in the manuscript, typically in the methods or acknowledgments section. The nature and extent of the LLM's involvement should be clearly explained.
2. Ethical Approval
Some institutions may require ethical approval for the use of automated methods in research, especially if the LLM is used in data collection involving human participants. Always consult your institutional guidelines.
4. Authorship Criteria: The Final Word
At the end of the day, authorship should reflect a genuine intellectual contribution to a study and the willingness to take public responsibility for the content. Our journal adheres to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines for responsible research publication.
By acknowledging these various dimensions of authorship and clarifying the role that LLMs can play, we aim to uphold the highest standards of scholarly integrity.
This refers to the set protocols, methods, and practices that authors must adhere to when submitting their manuscripts for review and eventual publication.
2. Organizing your Paper
This involves how you layout the content within your paper, including the arrangement of sections such as the introduction, methods, results, and conclusions.
3. Heading Sheet
This is the first page of your manuscript that contains crucial details like the title, authors' names, affiliations, and contact information.
This is a brief overview of the study, summarizing the main objectives, methods used, key findings, and conclusions.
5. Index Terms
These are specific words or phrases that capture the essence of the paper. They help in the indexing and searching of the paper in academic databases.
This section provides the context for the study. It introduces the problem, outlines the objectives, and gives an overview of what the study will cover.
This part describes the methodologies employed in the study. It should be detailed enough for other researchers to replicate the study.
This section presents the data collected during the study, usually in the form of tables, figures, or text.
This part interprets the data, considering the implications, limitations, and possible applications. It often compares the results with previous research.
10. Final Remarks
This section summarizes the study, reiterating its key findings and their implications, and often proposes avenues for future research.
This part includes various declarations such as conflicts of interest, ethical approvals, and acknowledgments.
12. Ethical Consent
This section is essential for studies involving humans or animals, detailing the ethical considerations and approvals received.
13. Agreement to Publish
This involves the consent from all authors to publish the manuscript, often formalized in a signed document.
14. Data Accessibility
This pertains to how and where the data supporting the findings can be accessed, usually after the publication of the paper.
15. Conflicts of Interest
This section requires authors to declare any interests that could compromise the objectivity or validity of the research.
16. Financial Support
This acknowledges any financial support received for the research, specifying the roles of the funders.
17. Writers' Involvement
This section clarifies each author's role in the research and manuscript preparation.
18. Special Thanks
This section gives credit to those who contributed to the research but are not listed as authors.
19. Contributor Details
This part may provide additional information about the authors, such as academic affiliations and professional roles.
20. Supplementary Notes
These are additional comments or clarifications that are relevant but not critical enough to include in the main text.
This lists all the sources cited in the paper, formatted according to a specific citation style like NLM.
22. Online References
This sub-section within the references includes web-based sources with proper citation formats.
23. Sample Citation Method
This provides an example of how to format citations, helping authors to maintain consistency.
24. Visuals, Data Tables, Supplementary Materials
This relates to all visual and tabular data, and any additional files like supplementary data or research protocols.
25. Transmit Paper
This is the final step, where the completed manuscript is uploaded to the journal's submission system for review.