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Table of Contents

Table of Contents at IgMin Research

Our mission is to foster interdisciplinary dialogue and accelerate the advancement of knowledge across a wide spectrum of scientific domains.

Science Group (25)

Opinion Article ID: igmin186
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Comprehensive Regeneration Approach as a Framework for Sustainable Development and Biodiversity
by Stephen J Browne

Several national and international frameworks have been developed to halt and reverse biodiversity loss by 2030 and help address the ongoing climate and biodiversity crises. These frameworks provide the targets against which locally applicable action plans can be created. The Royal Commission for AlUla and the IUCN hav...e developed Comprehensive Regeneration as the framework of nature-positive initiatives and as a model for the responsible development of AlUla County in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Biodiversity
Review Article Article ID: igmin182
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Expressivity Dimension of Speech is the basis of the Expression Dimension. Evidence from Behavioural and Neuroimaging Studies
by Isabelle Hesling

The modalities of communication are the sum of the expression dimension (linguistics) and the expressivity dimension (prosody), both being equally important in language communication. The expressivity dimension which comes first in the act of speech, is the basis on which phonemes, syllables, words, grammar, and morpho...syntax, i.e., the expression dimension of speech is superimposed. We will review evidence (1) revealing the importance of prosody in language acquisition and (2) showing that prosody triggers the involvement of specific brain areas dedicated to sentences and word-list processing. To support the first point, we will not only rely on experimental psychology studies conducted in newborns and young children but also on neuroimaging studies that have helped to validate these behavioral experiments. Then, neuroimaging data on adults will allow for the conclusion that the expressivity dimension of speech modulates both the right hemisphere prosodic areas and the left hemisphere network in charge of the expression dimension.

Linguistics Developmental BiologyCognitive Science
Review Article Article ID: igmin180
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Wishful Thinking about Consciousness
by Peter Grindrod

We contrast three very distinct mathematical approaches to the hard problem of consciousness: quantum consciousness, integrated information theory, and the very large-scale dynamical systems simulation of a network of networks. We highlight their features and their associated hypotheses, and we discuss how they are ali...gned or in conflict. We suggest some challenges to these theories, in considering how they might apply to the human brain as it develops both cognitive and conscious sophistication, from infancy to adulthood. We indicate how an evolutionary perspective challenges the distinct approaches to aver performance advantages and physiological surrogates for consciousness.

Cognitive Science Behavioral Science
Case Report Article ID: igmin179
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Into the Deep: Diving Record for the Dice Snake Natrix tessellata (Laurenti, 1768) in Lake Orta, NW Italy
by Stefano Bovero and Paola Viviana Trovò

Many snakes live close to water, with several groups displaying morphological, physiological, or behavioral adaptions to aquatic environments. Although marine snakes have been found at depths beyond 200 m, freshwater snakes are rarely reported at depths larger than a few meters. Here we report freshwater depth records ...for the dice snake Natrix tessellata, an aquatic snake belonging to the family Natricidae. Dice snake was observed at depths down to 17 m, including in habitats below the thermocline, in Lake Orta (Northern Italy). These observations open new perspectives related to the biology and physiology of Palearctic freshwater snakes belonging to the family Natricidae.

Biodiversity EthologyEcology
Short Communication Article ID: igmin177
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Isolation and Characterization of Active Alkaloid Compounds from Cinnamomum Verum Cortexes and Proof of their Medicinal Efficacy against Pathogenic Fungus Alternaria Alternate Causing Upper Respiratory Tract Inflammatory Disease
by Sanaa Qasem Badr

Six alkaloid compounds were isolated (the discovery of a natural drug, which is a combination of the six alkaloid compounds). Alkaloids viz., 1,3,5-Triazine-2-carboxylic acid, 4-amino-6-methyl; 1,2,4-Triazino[5,6-E][1,2,4]-triazine-3,6-dione, hexahydro; 2-(4,5-Dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-4-pyrazole)-5-nitrobenzoic ...acid; 4-metyl-3,4-dihydro-[1,2,3] trizolo [4,5-d] pyrimidine-5,7-dione; Propanoic acid-3-(perhydro-2,5-dioxo-imidazol [4,5-d] imidazole-1-yl) and 1,2,3-Triazolo[4,5-f] benzotriazole- 4,8(4H,8H)-dione, were isolated from Cinnamomum verum cortexes by using ethanolic acetic acid, sulphuric acid, and ammonia solvents, and they were characterized by using preliminary qualitative tests, gas chromatography-mass spectrumGC-MASS.The medicinal efficacy was studied for these six alkaloidic compounds theoretically by using the Autodock program and the results showed the presence of high efficacy of the compounds. Then the medicinal efficacy was measured biologically for the six compounds mixture in vitro depending on the synergistic interaction principle by using various concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mg/ml) by using of agar diffusion technique. The results showed that the six alkaloidic compounds’ mixture is biologically active against Alternaria alternate fungus, where the inhibition zone diameters were recorded equal to 27, 33, 41, 45, and 49 mm respectively towards the pathogenic fungus. Also, cytotoxicity tests for the different concentrations of six active alkaloid compounds mixture proved there is no toxic effect belonging to them towards red blood cells, and no hemolysis effect appeared in blood cells. Therefore, six alkaloid compounds isolated from Cinnamomum verum cortexes can be used as active drugs for the treatment of various diseases especially those caused by pathogenic fungi represented by Alternaria alternate, without any side effects.

Biochemistry MicrobiologyEthnomedicine
Research Article Article ID: igmin175
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

LC-MS and HPLC-UV for Detecting Uremic Toxins: Two Validated Methods with Simultaneous Sensitivity and Specificity Evaluation
by Cristina Filosa

Uremic toxins (UTs) are compounds derived from the metabolism of dietary molecules such as tryptophan (Indossyl Sulphate, IS) and phenil-alanine (P-Cresyl Sulphate, PCS), that are normally eliminated by the kidneys of healthy patients. The accumulation of such toxins is an indicator of kidney disease at different degre...es of severity, and the toxins can be found as free or protein bound in human biological samples. The toxicity of such compounds causes the loss of several biological functions, and the subjects suffering from such complications will need, more often than not, hemodialysis to properly excrete these toxins. Despite this not being a resolutive, but rather a symptom managing clinical approach, this is the most common course of treatment. Two analytical methods are proposed to quantify both the protein-bound and free forms of IS and PCS (HPLC-UV for the former; LC-MS/MS with ESI negative ionization for the latter), with lower variability and higher robustness than what is currently proposed, allowing for a precise simultaneous determination of the aforementioned UTs.

Molecular Biology
Mini Review Article ID: igmin174
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The use of FIKR (Facet, Insight, Knowledge, and Resilience) Personality as an Effective Assessment Tool to Select the Best Leadership in an Organization
by Chee Kong YapChee Seng Leow and Wing Sum Vincent Leong

This study presents a new assessment tool, FIKR (Facet, Insight, Knowledge, and Resilience) Personality Traits (PTs) for organisational talent development and leadership. The FIKR assessment tool offers a thorough framework for developing talent and leadership, covering facets, insights, knowledge, and resilience. By u...sing these elements, individuals can enhance their ability to successfully and strategically guide and influence others. Gaining self-awareness of one’s strengths and shortcomings, harmonising personal values with objectives for developing talents, obtaining the requisite information and abilities, and cultivating resilience not only promotes personal progress but also cultivates the potential of people within the organisation. By embracing the interaction of these FIKR characteristics, one may adopt a comprehensive and influential approach to talent development and leadership.

Sustainable Chemistry Computational Biology
Research Article Article ID: igmin171
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Contribution to the Knowledge of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Pakistan
by Zubair AhmedHaseeb Ahmed Lalika and Eric Kirschenhofer

The present study is based on the examination of specimens housed in different museums and collections, including those of Lianghong Bin (China), Bernd Jaeger (Germany), Saeed Azadbakhsh (Iran), Alexander Anichtchenko (Latvia), Martin Hackel (Czech Republic), Ron Felix (Germany), and the first author (ZACP). A prelimin...ary survey was randomly conducted in various areas of Pakistan from 2016 to 2023. A precise investigation revealed 17 subspecies and 36 species within 31 genera, distributed across 12 subfamilies in the family Carabidae. This survey also documented twenty-three new records for the country, expanding our understanding of their distribution. All determinations presented here are confirmed and validated by Löbl & Löbl (2017). Subfamily Harpalinae tribe Anthiini with 02 species Anthia (Anthia) sexguttata mannerheimii, A. (A.) sexguttata sexguttata Brachininae with 03 species Brachinus (Aploa) nobilis Pheropsophus (Stenaptinus) catoirei, P. (S.) lissoderus, P. stenoderus. Subfamily Broscinae with 01 species Broscus punctatus. Subfamily Carabinae with 07 species Carabus (Imaibius) caschmirensis fortetuberculatus, C. (I.) wittmerorum, Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum andrewesi, C. (C.) maderae indicum, C. (C.) imbricatum imbricatum, C. Calosoma (Compalita) Olivieri, C. (Calosoma) scabrosum roeschkei. Subfamily Dryptinae, Dryptini with 01 species Drypta (Drypta) lineola virgata, tribe Galeritini with 04 species records Planetes bimaculatus, Zuphium (Zuphium) olens olens, Galerita indica, Ophionea (Ophionea) indica. Subfamily Harpalinae with 03 species Idiomelas fulvipes indus, Metacolopodes buchanani, Microlestes discoidalis, tribe Chlaeniini with 12 species Chlaenius (Amblygenius) atripes, C. (A.) bengalensis, C. (A.) cookie, C. (A.) Chlaenius (Amblygenius) quadricolor orientalis, C. (Pachydinodes) hamifer, C. (P.) pictus, C. (P.) posticus, C. pretiosus, C. (Chlaenites) spoliatus spoliatus, Harpaglossus opacus, H. (Cryptophonus) tenebrosus, H. (Pseudophanus) meridianus, tribe Cyclosomini with 03 species records, Masoreus (Masoreus) orientalis orientalis, Caphora afghani, Tetragonoderus (Tetragonoderus) lindemannae, tribe Licinini with 06 species record, Diplochiela (Diplocheila) laevigata, Glycia spencei, Eucolliuris fuscipennis, Platytarus faminii faminii, Syntomus lateralis lateralis,     Trichis maculata. Subfamily Melaeninae with 03 spies, Cymbionotum (Cymbionotum) striatum, C. Cymbionotum candidum, C. semelederi, tribe Panagaeini with 03 species Microschemus flavopilosus, M. arabicus, Craspedophorus elegans. Subfamily Harpalinae with 01 species Sphodrus leucopthalmus. Subfamily Scaritinae, Scaritini with 02 species Scarites (Scallophorites) guineensis, S. (Scarites) procerus eurytus, subfamily Siagoninae with 01 species Siagona dilutipes and subfamily Trechinae, Bembidiini with 01 species Bembidion (Notaphocampa) niloticum niloticum.

Ecology BiodiversityTaxonomic SystemsZoology
Review Article Article ID: igmin166
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Qualitative Model of Electrical Conductivity of Irradiated Semiconductor
by Temur Pagava, Levan Chkhartishvili, Manana Beridze, Darejan Khocholava, Marina Shogiradze and Ramaz Esiava

There is constructed a qualitative model of the electrical conductivity of semiconductors irradiated with sufficiently high-energy particles. At certain conditions (irradiation temperature and dose, and subsequent thermal treatment), high-energy particles fluence, in addition to primary and secondary point radiation de...fects, forms a number of nano-sized disordered regions, highly conductive (“metallic”) compared to the semiconductor matrix. Their high total volume fraction can lead to the charge major carriers’ effective Hall mobility significantly exceeding that of the matrix. Due to elastic stresses created by these disordered inclusions, a high concentration of point radiation defects tends to form defective shells. In certain temperature ranges, such nanosized core-shell structures act as capacitors storing the electric charge sufficient for the Coulomb blockade of the major current carriers. Transformation of high-conductive inclusions into low-conductive (“dielectric”) ones manifests in a noticeable decrease in effective Hall mobility. The proposed model qualitatively explains all the experimental data available on single-crystalline n- and p-type silicon irradiated with high-energy electrons and protons and isochronously annealed.

Nanotechnology
Short Communication Article ID: igmin163
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Comments to Megascopic Quantum Phenomena
by Michal Svrček

We present here the incompleteness of the Copenhagen interpretation regarding the impossibility of explaining the transition from the exact quantum mechanics to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, where the inaccurate method captures phenomena like spontaneous symmetry breaking, but this is impossible to achieve with e...xact equations. The solution to this dilemma lies in the revision of quantum field theory which bounds together internal and external (vibrational, translational, and rotational) degrees of freedom in a similar way as the Lorentz transformation deals with space and time. This is the only way how to exactly mathematically justify the corrections beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (Born-Huang ansatz). The consequences are overwhelming: It reveals the wrong BCS theory of superconductivity, derived on the basis of the incomplete quantum field, and all erroneous theories inspired by the BCS one (e.g. Higgs mechanism). Moreover, the second Bohr complementarity emerges from the mechanical wholeness and field fragmentation, opening the door for the megascopic mirror of the microscopic Copenhagen interpretation and for the explanation of megascopic quantum phenomena. Finally, we get an entirely new look at the meaning of physics and chemistry: The first one deals with microscopic and the second one with megascopic phenomena.

Quantum Chemistry Physical ChemistryComputational Chemistry
Research Article Article ID: igmin158
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Balancing Act: Exploring the Interplay Between Human Judgment and Artificial Intelligence in Problem-solving, Creativity, and Decision-making
by Abdulrahman M Al-Zahrani

This study explores the repercussions of excessive reliance on Artificial Intelligence (AI) on human cognitive processes, specifically targeting problem-solving, creativity, and decision-making. Employing qualitative semi-structured interviews and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), it delves into the nuanc...ed challenges and risks stemming from an overemphasis on AI. The research illuminates a nuanced landscape: while AI streamlines problem-solving tasks and provides valuable support, there’s a crucial need to safeguard human judgment and intuition. In the realm of creativity, divergent viewpoints emerge, underscoring concerns regarding AI’s potential limitations and advocating for a harmonious interplay between AI-generated suggestions and individual creative thought. Regarding decision-making, participants recognize AI’s utility but underscore the necessity of blending AI insights with critical thinking and consideration of unique circumstances. They caution against complacency, advocating for a judicious equilibrium between AI guidance and individual expertise. This study innovates by providing multifaceted insights into the complexities of AI-human interaction, uncovering nuanced perspectives on its impacts across problem-solving, creativity, and decision-making domains. By bridging this gap, it advances understanding of how AI integration influences cognitive processes, offering practical implications for fostering a balanced approach. Its innovative methodology combines qualitative interviews and IPA, offering rich, nuanced data that provide a deeper understanding of the subject matter. This research serves as a beacon for promoting awareness of the risks associated with overreliance on AI, advocating for a mindful integration that upholds human agency while leveraging AI capabilities effectively.

Cognitive Science
Research Article Article ID: igmin147
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Efficacy of Different Concentrations of Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs) on Maize Stem Borer Infestation
by Muhammad Salman Hameed, Khurshied Ahmed Khan, Nida Urooj and Ijaz Rasool Noorka

Maize stem borer (Chilo Partellus), poses a substantial threat to maize crops all over the world, causing damage that ranges from 26.7% to 80.4%. Its destructive impact includes killing the shoot in young plants, leading to a “dead heart,” and damaging the upper stem in older plants through boring activity.... To combat this issue, a field experiment evaluated various insect growth regulators (IGRs) such as Lufenuron®, Pyriproxyfen®, Sitara®, Viper®, Track®, and Priority®. These IGRs, known as reduced-risk pesticides, target pest juveniles and are less harmful to beneficial insects. Conducted through a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 24 treatments, excluding a control group, the study recorded maize stem borer populations at 3, 7, and 14 days post-IGR application. In conclusion, the study identifies pyriproxyfen® and Priority® at double the standard concentrations as highly effective insect growth regulators in mitigating maize stem borer infestations, offering promising avenues for enhanced pest control strategies in maize cultivation.

Etiology Species InteractionParasitology
Review Article Article ID: igmin155
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Analysis of EU Countries’ Capabilities to Achieve Ambitious “Zero Victim” Vision in 2050
by Valentina Peleckienė and Peleckis K

The objective of this research paper is to examine and assess the correlation between the economic expansion of European Union member states and the escalating rate of motorization, which subsequently leads to road accidents resulting in significant loss of life and injury. A statistical analysis of economic growth, th...e rate of motorization, and road incidents in EU member states from 2010 to 2020 constitutes the research methodology. The research paper employs a quantitative approach to analysis and comparison. The research paper demonstrates how an increase in the number of motor vehicles in EU member states contributes to road accidents and human mortality. Varying degrees of economic development are associated with disparities between the rate of motorization expansion and the decline in fatalities. Because the rate of increase in motor vehicle usage surpasses the decline in fatalities per motor vehicle at low-income levels. At increased levels of income, the opposite occurs. Practical Implications: This research paper illustrates the importance for road traffic safety authorities to be aware of safety performance indicators and to incorporate them into legislative deliberations in order to bolster the European Union’s “zero victims” objective and provide enhanced protection for motor vehicle accident victims. Originality – This paper examines the correlation between motorization rates and fatalities in various EU member states with varying degrees of economic development over the past few decades.

Atmospheric Science
Research Article Article ID: igmin153
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Effect of Rainfall on Water Parameters in Recreational Lakes in Heidelberg, Germany
by Abhishek Chowfin, Nikola Gluvakovic and Ulrike Gayh

This study evaluates the impact of precipitation on water quality in Heidelberg, Germany’s recreational lakes during sporadic rainfall events from August to September 2023. Data were collected from five stations, monitoring physicochemical properties and nutrient levels before and after rainfall. Measurements of ...dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and redox potential were conducted in situ, while turbidity, nitrates, phosphates, sulphates, zinc, and copper levels were analyzed in the SRH Heidelberg water laboratory. Findings indicate pH levels increased due to dilution effects, while conductivity rose due to runoff, enhancing ion concentration in the lakes. Dissolved oxygen levels also increased, attributed to aeration from rainfall-induced surface turbulence. Redox potential decreased, reflecting atmospheric oxygen dissolution. Nutrient concentrations, including nitrates and phosphates, along with sulphates, declined post-rainfall, suggesting a dilution effect without significant impact from surface runoff. This outcome implies the absence of major nutrient and sulphate sources upstream. Heavy metals like zinc and copper also decreased in concentration, indicating no introduction through runoff or sediment transport. The study underscores the variability of water quality parameters across different lakes, influenced by factors such as water sources, surrounding land use, geological conditions, and lake characteristics. Overall, water quality improved post-rainfall, making the lakes suitable for recreational activities, with the study establishing a non-linear correlation among the water quality parameters and deducing the P ratio for each parameter.

Water Quality EcologyAtmospheric Science
Review Article Article ID: igmin148
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Kazakh Language Requires Reform of its Writing
by Sharipbay Altynbek

The article provides information about modern problems of writing the Kazakh language, the importance of its role and development in the context of mass digitization using artificial intelligence technologies and computational linguistics methods. The incorrectness of the current alphabet of the Kazakh language based o...n the Cyrillic alphabet is proved in connection with the inclusion of Cyrillic letters in it, denoting phonemes that are not included in its sound structure. The necessity of reforming the Kazakh writing by replacing the incorrect alphabet is substantiated. Errors and contradictions are shown in the approved version of the Kazakh alphabet based on the Latin alphabet, as well as the alphabet proposed as a replacement for the approved one, in which some previous errors are repeated. In both cases, no analysis and clarification of the sound system of the Kazakh language, which is the basis of any alphabet, is carried out. In this study, to clarify the sound system of the Kazakh language, experiments were carried out to determine the articulation and acoustic features of Kazakh sounds with the help the computer programs used for many natural languages. In the articulation analysis, special attention was paid to vowels, which give rise to various contradictions in the Kazakh letter. It is proposed to use a new classification of vowels according to four binary features, rather than the traditional classification according to three binary features. Acoustic analysis uses the method of formant analysis, which is aimed at identifying certain formants in the spectrogram. The formant is obtained using a spectrograph. Quantitatively, the formants correspond to the maxima in the speech spectrum and usually appear on spectrograms as horizontal bands. After determining the composition and classification of the sound system of the Kazakh language, two variants of the alphabet based on the Latin alphabet are proposed: the first one is based on the Turkish alphabet using diacritical marks; the second is based on the English alphabet using digraphs. The second option offers ways to solve problems that arise when using digraphs. In conclusion, information is provided on the ongoing and ongoing work in Kazakhstan related to the creation of smart systems in the Kazakh language based on the methods and technologies of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics, the results of which are reflected in the list of sources.

Linguistics EthnomedicineComputational Chemistry
Mini Review Article ID: igmin143
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Model for Clinical, Laboratory, and Genetic Prediction of Recurrent Ischemic Stroke against the Background of Laboratory Aspirin Resistance using Machine Learning
by Anastasia V AnisimovaSergey S Galkin, Anastasia S Gunchenko, Tatyana V Nasedkina and Igor V Vorobiev

The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of laboratory aspirin resistance; and to study the associations of genetic markers and clinical and laboratory parameters (including parameters of the platelet hemostasis) in patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke using machine learning methods to assess the ...prognosis of recurrent ischemic strokes. Clinical and laboratory data (including induced platelet aggregation) were analyzed from 296 patients with ischemic stroke who were treated in the stroke center of City Clinical Hospital No. 1 named after. N.I. Pirogov. The frequencies of polymorphic variants of the ITGB3, GPIba, TBXA2R, ITGA2, PLA2G7, HMOX1, PTGS1, PTGS2, ADRA2A, ABCB1, PEAR1 genes and intergenic region 9p21.3) in patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke, which were identified using hydrogel biochip technology, were determined. Using the developed machine learning model, additional clinical and genetic factors influencing the development of laboratory aspirin resistance and recurrent ischemic stroke were studied. In the future, the identified factors can be used for differentiated prevention of recurrent ischemic strokes.

Molecular Biology
Mini Review Article ID: igmin142
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Enforcement and Enlargement of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Endoplasmic Reticulum through Artificial Evocation of the Unfolded Protein Response
by Masaki Monguchi and Yukio Kimata

Upon dysfunction of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), eukaryotic cells provoke a gene expression program, namely, the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), leading to an increase in the size and function of the ER. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the UPR is modulated by the Hac1i protein, which is a transcription facto...r produced by ER stress. When the UPR is artificially triggered under non-stress conditions by artificial expression of the Hac1i protein, S. cerevisiae cells carry an enforced and enlarged ER, which allows us to obtain commercially valuable materials such as secretory proteins and functional lipids abundantly.

Molecular Biology
Research Article Article ID: igmin133
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Analytical Expressions of the Markov Chain of K-Ras4B Protein within the Catalytic Environment and a New Markov-State Model
by Orchidea Maria Lecian

The finite Markov chain to which there correspond the qualities of the conformational dynamics of the K-Ras4B proteins in the catalytic reaction is written. The corresponding Markov-Sates models are studied. The properties of the K-Ras4B processes Markov chain allow one to define a new two-state MSM for the analytical... description of the final-state transition. The time evolution of the eigenvalue corresponding to the final-state transition in the Galerkin description is written. The tools for the analytical calculations of the relative error are therefore prepared. New analytical formulations of the time evolution of the eigenvalue corresponding to the final-state transition are newly written from the experimental data and form the properties of the lag time in shaping the discretization error. The features of the discretization error are newly studied. A comparison with the experimental data is proposed.

Computational Biology Molecular BiologyBiophysics
Review Article Article ID: igmin130
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Indigenous Environmental Resilience: Decoding Ancient Rozvi Wisdom on Mountain Ecosystems as Disaster Management Solutions
by Lesley Hatipone Machiridza

Since time immemorial, Indigenous communities have always perceived the landscape as a complex web of living, physical, and spiritual things. These communities have always relied on their Indigenous knowledge systems (IKS), emphasizing ancestral burial grounds, mountains, caves, rivers, pools, forests, monuments, and o...ther cultural diacritics as symbols of place identity. In addition, myriad metaphors like taboos, legends, tales, folklore, myths, proverbs, stories, and practices, also constituted an integral part of Indigenous cultural and nature connections. This heritage was constantly imagined and configured to cement human-nature relations. However, the advent of colonialism severely violated this status quo, thereby causing deep environmental, political, and social crises. Through imposing a hegemonic scientific paradigm, knowledge compartmentalization, and capitalist aggrandizing practices, the original harmonious human-nature praxis premised on IKS was disrupted. To this day, the exclusionary colonial legacy and poisoned ‘sense of place’ remains our greatest threat to climate and environmental stability. Thus, this paper advocates for the recentralization of IKS as a valid way of knowing with already inbuilt human and natural disaster management solutions. By pivoting Rozvi narratives premised on five mountains, namely; Manyanga in Bubi district, Mavangwe, MunwewaMwari and Bepe in Buhera district, and Mutikwiri in Maungwe near Rusape town, all situated in former Butua/Guruuswa regions of Zimbabwe as case studies, the power of ancient wisdom as a holistic epistemic approach towards sustainable human-nature relations is explicated.

Ethnomedicine EthologyEcology
Review Article Article ID: igmin129
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Fred Vlès – Early Holistic Biophysicist and Pioneer of “Earthing”
by Marco Bischof

The paper reports on the life and works of Fred Vlès (1885-1944) and Paul Reiss (1901-1944), and Charles Laville (1877-1959) who worked in a similar field. Vlès was the founder of the first institute of biophysics in France at the University of Strasbourg, and Reiss was his pupil and associate. They worke...d in the time of 1910 to 1944 on the acid-alkaline balance and the reduction-oxidation (redox) potentials of the body fluids and tissues and their influence on the proteins and colloids of the “terrain”, along the lines given by the “milieu interne” (internal environment) or homeostasis concept by Claude Bernard. Vlès and Reiss were also electrobiologists and were some of the first scientists to investigate the physiological effects of electrical grounding where also the work of Charles Laville is relevant. In the conclusion we link this historical narrative to contemporary research.

Biophysics
Research Article Article ID: igmin128
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Influence of Polycarboxylate Superplasticizer on the Calorimetric and Physicomechanical Properties of Mortar
by Alya Harichane and Fatiha Belalia

The use of polycarboxylate ether superplasticizer PCE in the preparation of mortars and concretes influences the hydration kinetics and the amount of total heat released. This leads to a modification of certain properties of the mortar, namely workability, calorimetry and mechanical resistance. In this study two ether ...polycarboxylate superplasticizers with different chemical structures were used; they were incorporated at different dosages into a standardized cement-based mortar. The objective of this work is to study the effectiveness of these superplasticizers and to select the most compatible product with cement and the most suitable for use according to the climates of the country. The impact of superplasticizers on fresh cement was studied by measuring the Marsh cone flow time and calorimetric measurement. In the hardened state, the mechanical properties were provided by measuring the compressive strength. The results show that low dosages of ether polycarboxylate superplasticizer promote grain hydration and produce more heat. On the other hand, high dosages delay the contact of the cement grains with the mixing water and cause a reduction in the final heat released and a delay in setting. The ether polycarboxylate superplasticizer with high carboxylic density gives the best mechanical resistance compressive at 7 and 28 days.

Polymer Science
Research Article Article ID: igmin117
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Homologous Series of Chemical Compounds in Three-component Systems (Aa+ – Bb+ – Cc–) and (Zn2+ - Ge4+ - P3-) in Generalized Form
by Undalov Yu K

For the first time, a method for calculating formulas of homologous series of chemical compounds of the systems (Aa+ – Bb+ – Cc–) and {Zn2+ – Ge4+ – P3–} in a generalized form is presented. The calculation is confirmed by the literature experimentally obtained compounds: thirteen com...pounds of the system (Na+ – Ti4+ – O2–), seven – systems (Li+ – Ti4+ – O2–), five – systems (K+ – V5a+ –  – O2–), eight – systems (Ba2+ – Cu2+ – O2*). Homological series in (Aa+ – Bb+ – Cc–) have the following generalized form: A{t – k·r + nr – r)bcBracC{t – k·r + nr)ab and AtbcB{r – k·t + nt – t}acC (r – k·t + nt)ab.In (Zn2+ – Ge4+ – P3–) systems for the m-group the formulas of homologous series, that develops towards Ge3P4, have the following generalized form: Zn6tGe(6r – 6kt + 6n – 6t)P(8r – 8kt + 8n)  and for αm-homologous series – Zn6Ge3nP4(n + 1). A method for calculating formulas of homologous series of chemical compounds in a generalized form can be used for any system of chemical elements.

Inorganic Chemistry Molecular BiologyComputational Biology
Mini Review Article ID: igmin115
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Climate Changes and Mango Production (Temperature)
by Khalifa SM and Abobatta WF

The mango, known as the {king of fruits}, is commercially significant in many parts of the world. In addition to offering a delicious tropical flavor, mangoes are a great source of nourishment and can make eating a satisfying and healthy sensory experience. Even though mango farming is known to exist in more than 120 n...ations, just 15 of them are responsible for more than 1% of the world’s supply. More than 60% of the mangoes produced worldwide are grown in India, China, Thailand, Indonesia and Mexico. The effects of climate change on agriculture must take into account the increasing CO2 concentration, a significant contributor to climate change, as CO2 is essential to critical plant functions, including photosynthesis. The fluctuation of temperature represents another climatic factor that affects mango productivity. The primary challenge facing the mango industry is irregular cultivation. The mango flowering was negatively impacted by the erratic distribution of cold nights and relatively warm winters. Mango output is already being impacted by rising average maximum temperatures. Therefore, regardless of mango growers, geniuses, or consumers, rapid climate change should be a top priority. A benefit of selection and breeding operations to adapt to climatic change is the high genetic variety of mangoes.

Botany Evolutionary BiologyEcology
Research Article Article ID: igmin114
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Antioxidant and Antidepressant Properties of Dietary Proteins Derived from Egg and Bean Extracts and Their Acute Toxicity: A Journey from Nutrition to Pharmacognosy
by Amal El Hamsas El Youbi, Omaima Boudaia, Zineb Sekkout, Najat El Amrani and Driss Radallah

This research reveals the previously unexplored pharmacognostic potential of antidepressants found in nutrients derived from both legume and animal sources. Through preclinical investigations involving mouse models, the study focused into antidepressant and antioxidant activities of non-denatured and denatured protein ...extracts from beans and eggs. Non-denatured protein extracts from beans and eggs, at saturation levels of 40% and 80%, were examined as macronutrients, while denatured protein extracts at equivalent saturation levels were considered micronutrients. The study employed the DPPH and hydrogen peroxide tests to assess antioxidant activity, and the forced swimming test and sucrose preference test to evaluate acute and chronic mild antidepressant effects, respectively. The acute toxicity study revealed that macronutrients from eggs at 40% and 80% saturation displayed non-toxic effects (LD50 >5 g/kg), while those from beans, specifically at saturation of 80%, exhibited a relatively low level of toxicity (LD50 = 2.5 g/kg). Evaluation of antioxidant activity using the DPPH test yielded inconclusive results due to the influence of ethanol precipitation. In contrast, the H2O2 test demonstrated significant antioxidant potential in both macronutrients and micronutrients extracted from beans and eggs at all saturation levels. In investigating antidepressant properties, both macronutrients and micronutrients of bean and egg protein extracts at 40% and 80% saturation exhibited notable antidepressant effects, particularly the micronutrients at saturation of 80%. This antidepressant effect was characterized by a reduction in immobility time and an increase in sucrose preference.In conclusion, this study uncovers the multifaceted potential of protein extracts sourced from natural products, plant and animal origins, as agents for treating depression. It opens up new avenues for research, with implications ranging from neuroprotection to the management of depression, inspiring optimism for innovative approaches to mental health treatment.

Taxonomic Systems Organic ChemistryBehavioral Science
Research Article Article ID: igmin113
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Benzo[4’,5’]imidazo[2’,1’:6,1]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines: Past and Present
by AA Harutyunyan

Synthetic approaches to the construction of the heterocyclic benzo[4’,5’]imidazo[2’,1’:6,1]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine system based on heterocyclizations of substituted benzimidazoles and a new alternative strategy based on 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidinyl-5-propanoic acids are considered. The latte...r method has been shown to be a successful addition to previously described methods, since it allows one to bypass the significant limitations associated with the use of substituted benzimidazoles and allows the introduction of functional substituents at different positions of the heterocycle that are inaccessible by other methods. The available information on derivatives of this heterocyclic system and their biological properties is summarized.

Organic Chemistry Computational ChemistryBiochemistry

Technology Group (21)

Review Article Article ID: igmin176
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Dibia in Igbo Traditional Socio-political and Metaphysical Economy: An Interrogation
by Kingsley Okoro and Kenneth Igbo Nwokike

This work is carried out to fill the epistemic and hermeneutical gap within Igbo socio-metaphysical space. Notable works have been done in Igbo studies, however, the place of the Dibia in Igbo ontology has been neglected, hence the current work. The researchers combined library and fieldwork approaches in executing thi...s work. In the end, the research notes that modern Igbo people have neglected the place and activities of the Dibia. Noting that the Dibia being the active presence of the God[s] among the people is an indispensable persona in the Igbo existence. Therefore, the current crisis of relevance the people are experiencing is a result of this neglect. The works, therefore, conclude that if the Dibia and her activities are brought back to the centre stage of Igbo existence, the socio-political and economic crises of the moment would have been a history.

Technology and Society
Research Article Article ID: igmin172
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Improved Energy Valley Optimizer with Levy Flight for Optimization Problems
by Nabila H Shikoun and Islam S Fathi

Energy Valley Optimizer (EVO) is one of the recent metaheuristic algorithms. It draws inspiration from advanced principles in physics related to particle stability and decay modes. This paper presents a new Energy Valley Optimizer (EVO) and levy flights that are hybrid to improve the EVO in solving optimization problem...s. Levy flight is one of the most important randomization techniques. Fifteen mathematical test functions (five unimodal functions, four multimodal functions, and six composite functions) are solved with the proposed algorithm. We also compare our results with previous results of metaheuristic algorithms. The statistical results show that the results of the Levy Energy Valley Optimizer (LEVO) outperform other algorithms in almost all mathematical test functions.

Data Science Machine LearningData Mining
Research Article Article ID: igmin169
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Cyber Threat Analysis (CTA) in Current Conflicts
by Zbigniew Ciekanowski and Sławomir Żurawski

Cyber Threat Analysis (CTA) in current conflicts focuses on identifying, monitoring, and assessing potential cyber threats. The main objective is to understand how the parties to the conflict use information and network technologies to conduct warfare, espionage, disinformation, or attacks on digital infrastructure. Th...is analysis includes the identification of actors involved in conflicts and their targets in cyberspace, as well as the analysis of techniques and tools used in cyber activities. The aim of the article is to identify the role of cyber threat analysis in the context of two current conflicts - the war in Ukraine and the Hamas attack on Israel. The article describes the essence of cyber threat analysis. The research problem focuses on identifying and understanding the role of cyber threat analysis in these conflicts and their potential consequences for international security and regional stability. Through the analysis of reports, online sources, and scientific literature, the article aims to familiarize readers with the role of cyber threat analysis in the context of these conflicts and to propose possible strategies for cyber risk management in the face of contemporary armed conflicts. The results of the analysis of cyber threats (CTA) in current conflicts include the identification of specific actors operating in cyberspace, their modus operandi, their objectives, and the techniques and tools used. In addition, the analysis can reveal existing vulnerabilities in digital security and areas that are particularly vulnerable to attacks. To sum up, it is necessary to create recommendations and directions for changes regarding the strengthening of digital security measures, such as software updates, implementation of network security, and increasing staff awareness of cyber threats. In addition, the CTA may suggest the need for better international cooperation to combat cyber threats and the need to develop strategies to prevent and respond to cyber-attacks.

Information Security Network SecurityTechnology and Society
Case Report Article ID: igmin167
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

System for Detecting Moving Objects Using 3D Li-DAR Technology
by Md. Milon Rana, Orora Tasnim Nisha, Md. Mahabub Hossain, Md Selim Hossain, Md Mehedi Hasan and Md Abdul Muttalib Moon

The “System for Detecting Moving Objects Using 3D LiDAR Technology” introduces a groundbreaking method for precisely identifying and tracking dynamic entities within a given environment. By harnessing the capabilities of advanced 3D LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) technology, the system constructs intri...cate three-dimensional maps of the surroundings using laser beams. Through continuous analysis of the evolving data, the system adeptly discerns and monitors the movement of objects within its designated area. What sets this system apart is its innovative integration of a multi-sensor approach, combining LiDAR data with inputs from various other sensor modalities. This fusion of data not only enhances accuracy but also significantly boosts the system’s adaptability, ensuring robust performance even in challenging environmental conditions characterized by low visibility or erratic movement patterns. This pioneering approach fundamentally improves the precision and reliability of moving object detection, thereby offering a valuable solution for a diverse array of applications, including autonomous vehicles, surveillance, and robotics.

Robotics Image Processing
Research Article Article ID: igmin165
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Application of Virtual Reality (VR) in Facility Management Competency-based Training (CBT) in the Era of Industrie 5.0
by Ng Wei Xuan, Cheng Zhuo Yuan and Luke Peh Lu Chang

This case study investigates the implementation of Virtual Reality (VR) technology in facilities management Competency-Based Training (CBT) within one of Singapore’s leading facilities and township management companies. Traditionally, workplace training in facility management has relied heavily on lecture-based m...ethods, often resulting in insufficient preparation and a high turnover rate among newly onboarded staff. To address this challenge, this study explores the conversion of training materials into VR-based courseware, enabling immersive and interactive learning experiences.Two groups of newly onboarded staff underwent either traditional lecture-based or VR training sessions. Results indicate that those trained using VR exhibited a better comprehension of the material and higher levels of motivation compared to their counterparts in the traditional lecture-based group. However, it was noted that VR training carries the risk of cybersickness, with some participants reporting symptoms such as dizziness. To mitigate this issue, insights from existing literature on cybersickness are incorporated to enhance future VR training materials.This paper studies the application of VR in Facilities Management Competency-based training within the discourse of Industrie 5.0, the latest evolution of industrial technology that emphasizes human-machine collaboration and smart technologies such as VR. By leveraging VR technology for training purposes, this initiative aligns with the principles of Industrie 5.0, fostering innovation and efficiency in facility management practices. Overall, this research underscores the potential of VR in revolutionizing training methodologies within the practices of facilities management while addressing associated challenges to ensure optimal learning outcomes.

Educational Technology Systems TechnologyInformation Security
Mini Review Article ID: igmin156
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The University Sector is Converging on Manufacturing in UK
by Kevin Kendall

Many UK inhabitants now adopt careers working in both university and manufacturing sectors. In a typical engineering career, a young student may now start at university, spend time in factories, often in research and development, and then return to university in later life to teach evolving innovation principles of ind...ustry. It is clear to such people that universities are expanding rapidly whereas manufacturing has declined and reached an equilibrium of output but with lower job numbers due to robotics. Manufacturing in 2022 was approximately 8% of British GDP whereas the university sector was only about 2%. This paper analyses the growing connections and co-locations with numerous universities/manufacturing companies, predicting that convergence in both jobs and GDP contribution will occur around 2050.

Technology and Society Materials ScienceEducational Technology
Review Article Article ID: igmin145
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Conceptual View of the Department of Combat use of Communication Units on the Creation of a Training Game Complex for Training Military Specialists on the Basis of Leadership
by Igor Kozubtsov and Oleksandr Nesterov

Today’s cadet leader is tomorrow’s officer, a professional capable of integrating knowledge and solving complex problems in a full-scale war with incomplete information, being a leader and authority for the personnel. Most of the time, cadets study in study groups using traditional technology, which is not ...enough to form a professional cadet leader. With the advent of computer technology, students’ and cadets’ motivation to learn using traditional teaching methods has paradoxically begun to decline rapidly. The problem of the quality of training of military specialists for the needs of communication and cybersecurity units is not reflected in the publications reviewed. However, significant progress has been made in the use of computer technology as the basis of training tools for ground forces units. Similar training complexes are actively used in NATO member states in the military education system in the training of air force pilots (navigators). Therefore, the author chose the improvement of the educational process at the Department of Combat Use of Communication Units in combination with the methodology of professional-business game for the development of a cadet leader in professional training courses (L-1B) of the tactical level of military education as the direction of research. The purpose of the study and the article is to substantiate the conceptual view of the department in the need to build a computerized training complex for training officers of leaders in professional training courses (L-1B) of the tactical level of military education, capable of using communication units based on computer games. Fragments of the game mechanics of stimulating the interest and motivation of cadets to study, for example, electronic shooting range, and learning Morse code, are considered. Game mechanics is a proof of a professional business game in the course of the discipline: Combat use of military communication systems and complexes of the course of professional military education (professional course of tactical level L1B).

Educational Technology SimulationInformation Security
Research Article Article ID: igmin150
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Efficient Room Temperature Ethanol Vapor Sensing by Unique Fractal Features of Tin Oxide
by Rupali Nagar and Vishal Kamathe

Fractals are complex structures that repeat themselves at several scales. Nature exhibits these in many forms like snowflakes, mountains, coastlines, the human brain/lungs/ nervous system, and many more. It appears that these are nature’s organic way of growth. Thus, there is an underlying science that works to g...row or create these self-similar patterns. In this work, tin oxide-based fractals have been grown under laboratory conditions and applied to a gas-sensing field. The facile growth methodology successfully grows fractals on a large scale. The tin oxide fractals have unique basic building units that connect and grow in different directions. These tin oxide fractals have successfully sensed ethanol vapors in the range of 20 ppm to 100 ppm. The best sensing response has also detected ethanol vapors as low as 10 ppm at room temperature with response and recovery times of 18 ± 3 s and 22 ± 5 s, respectively. The best sensing response recorded for such sensors was under 12 s. The characteristic fractal growth is attributed as the defining factor that enhances ethanol sensing at room temperature.

Materials Science
Review Article Article ID: igmin149
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Strengthening IoT Network Protocols: A Model Resilient Against Cyber Attacks
by Guy Leshem and Menachem Domb

The pervasive Internet of Things (IoT) integration has revolutionized industries such as medicine, environmental care, and urban development. The synergy between IoT devices and 5G cellular networks has further accelerated this transformation, providing ultra-high data rates and ultra-low latency. This connectivity ena...bles various applications, including remote surgery, autonomous driving, virtual reality gaming, and AI-driven smart manufacturing. However, IoT devices’ real-time and high-volume messaging nature exposes them to potential malicious attacks. The implementation of encryption in such networks is challenging due to the constraints of IoT devices, including limited memory, storage, and processing bandwidth. In a previous work [1], we proposed an ongoing key construction process, introducing a pivotal pool to enhance network security. The protocol is designed with a probability analysis to ensure the existence of a shared key between any pair of IoT devices, with the predefined probability set by the system designer. However, our earlier model faced vulnerabilities such as the “parking lot attack” and physical attacks on devices, as highlighted in the conclusion section. We present a complementary solution to address these issues, fortifying our previous protocol against cyber threats. Our approach involves the implementation of an internal Certification Authority (CA) that issues certificates for each IoT device before joining the network.Furthermore, all encryption keys are distributed by the primary IoT device using the Unix OS ‘passwd’ mechanism. If a device “disappears,” all encryption keys are promptly replaced, ensuring continuous resilience against potential security breaches. This enhanced protocol establishes a robust security framework for IoT networks, safeguarding against internal and external threats.

Network Security Internet SecurityData Security
Research Article Article ID: igmin151
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

From Traditionalism to Algorithms: Embracing Artificial Intelligence for Effective University Teaching and Learning
by Abdulrahman M Al-Zahrani

The current study examines the impact of integrating artificial intelligence (AI) in higher education in Saudi Arabia, specifically focusing on the roles of university teachers and students’ learning outcomes. It investigates the transformation of teaching practices, and the challenges faced by university teacher...s during AI integration, and identifies opportunities for collaboration and innovation. A quantitative research method using a survey questionnaire was employed to gather data and inform practical recommendations. The findings indicate that university teachers recognize the potential benefits of AI in education, but also highlight the need to address challenges for effective implementation. Participants perceive AI as a tool that enables more creative and engaging teaching methods, automates tasks, and brings about changes in teaching approaches. Difficulties in utilizing AI effectively and adapting to new teaching methods were identified. AI also offers opportunities for innovation, collaboration, and creating engaging learning environments. There were slight variations in perspectives based on gender and current role, with female university teachers and teaching assistants/professors perceiving higher impact and opportunities for collaboration and innovation. Participants with higher AI expertise perceived a greater impact of AI and fewer challenges. Those who aligned with the educational purposes of AI saw greater impact and opportunities for collaboration while acknowledging usage difficulties.

Educational Technology
Mini Review Article ID: igmin137
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

A Capsule Neural Network (CNN) based Hybrid Approach for Identifying Sarcasm in Reddit Dataset
by Muhammad Faseeh and Harun Jamil

Sarcasm, a standard social media message, delivers the opposite meaning through irony or teasing. Unfortunately, identifying sarcasm in written text is difficult in natural language processing. The work aims to create an effective sarcasm detection model for social media text data, with possible applications in sentime...nt analysis, social media analytics, and online reputation management. A hybrid Deep learning strategy is used to construct an effective sarcasm detection model for written content on social media networks. The design emphasizes feature extraction, selection, and neural network application. Limited research exists on detecting sarcasm in human speech compared to emotion recognition. The study recommends using Word2Vec or TF-IDF for feature extraction to address memory and temporal constraints. Use feature selection techniques like PCA or LDA to enhance model performance by selecting relevant features. A Capsule Neural Network (CNN) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) collect contextual information and sequential dependencies in textual material. We evaluate Reddit datasets with labelled sarcasm data using metrics like Accuracy. Our hybrid method gets 95.60% accuracy on Reddit.

Machine Learning Information SecurityData Science
Mini Review Article ID: igmin136
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The policy development and current situation of information technology education in Taiwan
by Min-Ying Tsai

With the development of science and technology, almost everyone uses 3C (Computer, Communication, and Consumer Electronics) products and can search for information online, play games, chat with others, etc. at any time. Coupled with the impact of the pandemic, school teachers and students cannot go to school and can on...ly use online teaching and distance learning. This requires teachers to quickly learn the relevant knowledge of using information technology for teaching, such as the operation of equipment, online teaching, etc. Establishment of meeting rooms. To this day, the Ministry of Education actively promotes digital teaching in primary and secondary schools based on international trends and domestic policy developments. The paper introduced the policy and current state of the application of educational technology in Taiwan.

Educational Technology
Mini Review Article ID: igmin135
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Revolutionizing Duplicate Question Detection: A Deep Learning Approach for Stack Overflow
by Muhammad Faseeh and Harun Jamil

This study provides a novel way to detect duplicate questions in the Stack Overflow community, posing a daunting problem in natural language processing. Our proposed method leverages the power of deep learning by seamlessly merging Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks to captur...e both local nuances and long-term relationships inherent in textual input. Word embeddings, notably Google’s Word2Vec and GloVe, raise the bar for text representation to new heights. Extensive studies on the Stack Overflow dataset demonstrate the usefulness of our approach, generating excellent results. The combination of CNN and LSTM models improves performance while streamlining preprocessing, establishing our technology as a viable piece in the arsenal for duplicate question detection. Aside from Stack Overflow, our technique has promise for various question-and-answer platforms, providing a robust solution for finding similar questions and paving the path for advances in natural language processing.

Machine Learning
Research Article Article ID: igmin134
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Properties of Indium Antimonide Nanocrystals as Nanoelectronic Elements
by Nikolai Dmitrievich Zhukov

By measurements on single nanocrystals of indium antimonide in the interelectrode nanogap of a scanning probe microscope, current-voltage characteristics with quasiperiodic current pulsations, are explained in the model of Bloch oscillations in a perfect nanocrystal, and individual sharp peaks - conductivity resonances..., explained in the model of quantum-size limitation of the wave process of electron transport in a deep potential hole. The mutual influence of radiation from two statistical ensembles of nanocrystals from the same batch was experimentally studied and established. It is assumed that this radiation is entangled photons. It is proposed to use nanocrystals in nanoelectronics as a single-electron memristor, a single-photon bolometer, and a source of microwave radiation.

Semiconductor Technology
Research Article Article ID: igmin132
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Methodology of the Professional-Business Game for the Development of a Cadet Leader in Professional Training Courses (L-1B) of the Tactical Level of Military Education
by Igor Kozubtsov

The aim of the study is to develop a methodology for a professional-business game for the development of a cadet leader in professional training courses (L-1B) of the tactical level of military education on the example of teaching the discipline “Combat use of military communication systems and complexes”. ...After all, the most important prerequisite for the combat potential of the Armed Forces of Ukraine is a comprehensively trained officer-leader, his consciousness, knowledge, skills, military-technical qualifications, creative and innovative activity, developed emotional and volitional sphere of the psyche, beliefs, motivation, and ideals. The article summarizes the research on the state of development of a cadet leader in Ukraine. In the context of a full-scale war, there is a need to strengthen the development of the personality of a cadet leader (a future officer of the tactical level of military education). Today’s cadet-leader is tomorrow’s officer-leader, capable of integrating knowledge and solving complex problems in new or unfamiliar environments with incomplete or limited information, being a leader and authority for the personnel. Therefore, the scientific and practical task arises to consider aspects of the development of the personality of a cadet leader and to modernize the process of his development, for example, in the courses of professional military education L-1B (tactical level of military education) in terms of the disciplines of the Department of Combat Use of Communication Units. The periodization of cadets’ adaptation to the new educational space and service activities is considered, the optimal period of leader growth is determined, and the mechanism itself is proposed. The article separately identifies the key tasks for the selection of academic staff and admission to the educational process. The methodology of the professional and business game for the development of a cadet leader in professional training courses (L-1B) of the tactical level of military education is developed on the example of teaching the discipline “Combat use of military communication systems and complexes”. The scientific novelty of the work is the improved educational process of training and development of a cadet leader in professional training courses (L-1B) of the tactical level of military education by reformatting group classes in the traditional format into a professional business game for the positions of officers with the introduction of typical and atypical (force majeure) training tasks for cadets in everyday activities in new or unfamiliar environments in the presence of incomplete or limited information.

Educational Technology Technology and Society
Literature Review Article ID: igmin131
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Educational Innovation amidst Globalization: Higher Education Institutions and Societal Integration
by Zainab Rasheed

The contemporary landscape of higher education resonates with the dynamic interplay of globalization’s monumental forces, cultural diversity, and transformative educational paradigms. This scholarly inquiry navigates the complex terrain of higher education institutions (HEIs) within the context of the United Arab... Emirates (UAE), unraveling the intricate tapestry of educational challenges amidst globalization’s pervasive influence. The research embarks on an odyssey through a holistic examination of HEIs’ responses to global forces, aiming to decipher the transformative journey and its implications for societal transformation. Globalization, a multifaceted phenomenon, has revolutionized higher education, driving a shift from traditional to diversified pedagogical models. However, this transformative journey presents a myriad of challenges and opportunities for HEIs. The study underscores the pivotal role of internationalization and cultural inclusivity in reshaping the educational landscape. Challenges faced by HEIs in adapting to globalized learning environments, reluctance to embrace cultural diversity, and limitations in fostering cross-cultural competencies among students emerge as focal points. This research contributes a novel perspective by delineating the barriers hindering the internationalization of educational settings, offering insights into strategies for fostering inclusive learning environments. Emphasizing the significance of embracing cultural diversity, the study recommends recalibrating institutional policies and practices. These findings resonate beyond academic discourse, influencing practical implications for real-world educational settings. In conclusion, this research emphasizes the imperative for HEIs to adapt and innovate in response to globalization, fostering inclusive learning environments to equip students with the requisite skills for navigating a diverse, interconnected world. Leveraging these insights, institutions can contribute to societal transformation and the holistic development of students, shaping a future aligned with global competencies and enriched cultural understanding.

Educational Technology Technology and Society
Mini Review Article ID: igmin125
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Deep Semantic Segmentation New Model of Natural and Medical Images
by Pei-Yu Chen, Chien-Chieh Huang and Yuan-Chen Liu

Semantic segmentation is the most significant deep learning technology. At present, automatic assisted driving (Autopilot) is widely used in real-time driving, but if there is a deviation in object detection in real vehicles, it can easily lead to misjudgment. Turning and even crashing can be quite dangerous. This... paper seeks to propose a model for this problem to increase the accuracy of discrimination and improve security. It proposes a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)+ Holistically-Nested Edge Detection (HED) combined with Spatial Pyramid Pooling (SPP). Traditionally, CNN is used to detect the shape of objects, and the edge may be ignored. Therefore, adding HED increases the robustness of the edge, and finally adds SPP to obtain modules of different sizes, and strengthen the detection of undetected objects. The research results are trained in the CityScapes street view data set. The accuracy of Class mIoU for small objects reaches 77.51%, and Category mIoU for large objects reaches 89.95%.

Machine Learning Image ProcessingData Science
Review Article Article ID: igmin123
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

A Survey of Motion Data Processing and Classification Techniques Based on Wearable Sensors
by Xiaoqiong Xiong, Xuemei Xiong, Chao Lian and Keda Zeng

The rapid development of wearable technology provides new opportunities for action data processing and classification techniques. Wearable sensors can monitor the physiological and motion signals of the human body in real-time, providing rich data sources for health monitoring, sports analysis, and human-computer inter...action. This paper provides a comprehensive review of motion data processing and classification techniques based on wearable sensors, mainly including feature extraction techniques, classification techniques, and future development and challenges. First, this paper introduces the research background of wearable sensors, emphasizing their important applications in health monitoring, sports analysis, and human-computer interaction. Then, it elaborates on the work content of action data processing and classification techniques, including feature extraction, model construction, and activity recognition. In feature extraction techniques, this paper focuses on the content of shallow feature extraction and deep feature extraction; in classification techniques, it mainly studies traditional machine learning models and deep learning models. Finally, this paper points out the current challenges and prospects for future research directions. Through in-depth discussions of feature extraction techniques and classification techniques for sensor time series data in wearable technology, this paper helps promote the application and development of wearable technology in health monitoring, sports analysis, and human-computer interaction.Index Terms: Activity recognition, Wearable sensor, Feature extraction, Classification

Data Mining Technology and SocietyMachine Learning
Mini Review Article ID: igmin121
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Educational Role of Cinema in Physical Sciences
by Maria Sagri, Denis Vavougios and Filippos Sofos

Cinema, apart from its entertaining prospect, can flourish knowledge in various fields of daily life and, in particular, in the understanding of the natural world. It could be even embedded in the educational system, at all levels, so as to convey concepts that may be difficult for students in an enjoyable and understa...ndable way. In this mini-review, the educational dimension of the cinema and the related television series is discussed, through the presentation of concepts and phenomena relevant to the natural sciences that have been approached with characteristic scenes of popular cinema movies of our times. We present case studies from physics and astronomy, mathematics, materials science, and engineering that can be easily embedded in the educational curriculum. Notwithstanding the fact that watching movies cannot replace the traditional educational method, it can pose as an alternative, complementary tool for educators.

Educational Technology TechProductionTechnology and Society
Research Article Article ID: igmin120
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

A Comprehensive Methodology for Assessing the Business Reputation of Industrial and Production Personnel
by Filatov EA

The currently existing Russian and other legislation, as well as special literature, do not contain a methodology for the formation of the business reputation of the organization’s personnel and as a result, there is no unambiguous perception of the business, professional qualities of personnel as an object of ev...aluation of the organization in the market system. Therefore, it is impossible to single out the share of the results of intellectual advantage in the goods and services produced. This confirms the requirements formulated in paragraph 4 of Accounting Regulation 14/2007 «Accounting for intangible assets», which states that the intellectual and business qualities of the organization’s personnel, their qualifications, and their ability to work are not included in the intangible assets (since they are inseparable from their carriers and cannot be used without them). Meanwhile, the interests of the leading economically developed countries of the world lie in the field of accelerated growth of knowledge acquisition and application of professional skills. This trend of development of economically developed countries forms the basis of competitiveness and efficiency of their work. It should be noted that in the world economy, there is insufficient theoretical elaboration and a special practical significance and relevance of the issue of assessing the business reputation of the personnel of an economic entity. The article presents a comprehensive methodology for evaluating the performance of industrial and production personnel (the standard-production methodology), which contributes to the formation of accounting and information support for the analysis of the activities of both structural divisions, responsibility centers, business segments and commercial organizations as a whole. The author’s standard-production methodology makes it possible to determine the business reputation of industrial and production personnel, which contradicts the official economic paradigm.

Technology and Society Quality ControlInformation SecurityData Mining
Research Article Article ID: igmin112
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Federated Learning- Hope and Scope
by Lhamu Sherpa and Nandan Banerji

People are suffering from” data obesity” as a result of the expansion and quick development of various Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies and machine learning fields. The management of the current techniques is becoming more challenging due to the data created in the Smart-Health and Fintech service ...sectors. To provide stable and reliable methods for processing the data, several Machine Learning (ML) techniques were applied. Due to privacy-related issues with the aforementioned two providers, ML cannot fully use the data, which becomes difficult since it might not give the results that were expected. When the misuse and exploitation of personal data were gaining attention on a global scale and traditional machine learning (CML) was facing difficulties, Google introduced the concept of Federated Learning (FL). In order to enable the cooperative training of machine learning models among several organizations under privacy requirements, federated learning has been a popular research area. The expectation and potential of federated learning in terms of smart-health and fintech services are the main topics of this research.

Data Science Machine LearningData Security

Engineering Group (16)

Review Article Article ID: igmin184
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Roadmap for Greening the Economy of Turkmenistan
by Ahmet Penjiyev

Over the past decades, interest in renewable energy has grown, this is due to the aggravation of climate change. The emerging trend of decarbonization of the world economy, including transport and energy, which are one of the main sources of air pollution with carbon dioxide emissions. The article discusses issues of c...limate change, decarbonization scenario, a road map for “greening” the economy, and presents a brief analysis of trends in the development of hydrogen energy and the importance of the development of “green” hydrogen in the world and in Turkmenistan. The main attention is paid to the prospects and scale of development of hydrogen energy to a certain extent will depend on the characteristics of the hydrogen sources proposed for use ­, primary energy sources and hydrogen production technologies, environmental consequences when using different approaches to hydrogen production, expected costs for hydrogen production, potential consumers and volumes of hydrogen consumption within the country and abroad, technologies for storing and delivering hydrogen to consumers, the competitiveness of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the domestic and foreign markets, taking into account all the necessary costs and a potential “transboundary carbon ­tax”.

Energy Engineering
Review Article Article ID: igmin183
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

New Scientific Field for Modelling Complex Dynamical Systems: The Cybernetics Artificial Intelligence (CAI)
by Peter P Groumpos

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been considered a revolutionary and world-changing science, although it is still a young field and has a long way to go before it can be established as a viable theory. Every day, new knowledge is created at an unthinkable speed, and the Big Data Driven World is already upon us. AI has ...developed a wide range of theories and software tools that have shown remarkable success in addressing difficult and challenging societal problems. However, the field also faces many challenges and drawbacks that have led some people to view AI with skepticism. One of the main challenges facing AI is the difference between correlation and causation, which plays an important role in AI studies. Additionally, although the term Cybernetics should be a part of AI, it was ignored for many years in AI studies. To address these issues, the Cybernetic Artificial Intelligence (CAI) field has been proposed and analyzed here for the first time. Despite the optimism and enthusiasm surrounding AI, its future may turn out to be a “catastrophic Winter” for the whole world, depending on who controls its development. The only hope for the survival of the planet lies in the quick development of Cybernetic Artificial Intelligence and the Wise Anthropocentric Revolution. The text proposes specific solutions for achieving these two goals. Furthermore, the importance of differentiating between professional/personal ethics and eternal values is highlighted, and their importance in future AI applications is emphasized for solving challenging societal problems. Ultimately, the future of AI heavily depends on accepting certain ethical values.

Artificial Intelligence
Research Article Article ID: igmin178
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Challenge and Readiness to Implemented Geothermal Energy in Indonesia
by Endah Murtiana SariKalyca Najla Manggala, Marvian Farabi Arief and Panduaji Suswanto Umar Said

Many countries have used various strategies in the effort toward transition to alternative energy as a solution in developing renewable energy. Indonesia is the second largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. The potential of Indonesia lies in the Ring of Fire along with 117 active volcanoes, giving Indonesi...a high geothermal potential. This research aims to reveal and formulate the potential of geothermal as renewable energy in Indonesia as an alternative energy to be used in the future. The methods in this research are qualitative and quantitative. Through the quantitative method, this research will present secondary data from various organizations as well as data from prior research on geothermal potential in the world. While qualitative method will formulate ideas of several geothermal usages from many countries by using comparison from prior research and literature from journals, books, and other publication sources. Qualitative research results will also come from in-depth interviews with stakeholders that have implemented geothermal energy in Indonesia. The result of this research will illustrate the importance of geothermal energy as an alternative renewable energy in Indonesia to replace crude oil resources as the main natural resource in Indonesia. This research recommends the mapping of resources, requiring technology as a breakthrough in processing geothermal energy to take it directly from the reservoir because of its unorthodox classification based on its source as well the cost and benefit impact on the economy related to consumer mapping to detect early the market changes of energy to geothermal.

Energy Engineering Applied Engineering
Research Article Article ID: igmin173
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Investigation of Lateral Vibrations in Turbine-generator Unit 5 of the Inga 2 Hydroelectric Power Plant
by André Mampuya NzitaEdmond Phuku Phuati, Robert Muanda Ngimbi, Guyh Dituba Ngoma and Nathanaël Masiala Mavungu

The article presents a case study on the Investigation of lateral vibrations in the turbine-generator unit 5 of the Inga 2 hydroelectric power plant in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Lateral vibrations were experimentally determined using twelve proximity and eddy-current probes, positioned on each measurement p...lane. The results were analyzed using the Dasylab and R software. Hence, it was observed that the vibration amplitudes of the upper guide bearing, lower guide bearing, and pivot/rotor exceeded acceptable or critical limit values of the international vibration standard for a rotating speed between 100-250 rpm. These excesses can lead to rotor mass imbalances, the eccentricity of the rotor axis relative to the rotation axis of the shaft, and the deformation of the coupling shaft between the upper rotor shaft and the turbine rotor shaft. Subsequently, the means and the variances of the vibration amplitudes were evaluated and compared to the reference values of the international standard. The results of the compliance analysis revealed statistically significant differences between the measured amplitudes and the reference values. Thus, it indicates deviations from international specifications.

Power Engineering DynamicsIndustrial EngineeringMechanical Engineering
Research Article Article ID: igmin170
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Analysis of the State of Moisture Control to Ensure and Regulate the Quality of Grain and Grain Products
by Kalandarov Palvan Iskandarovich

The article discusses the methods for determining the maturity of grain and describes its behavior during harvesting, to optimize the selection of the grain moisture state, discusses the requirements for the choice of measurement method and the design of moisture control measuring devices, as well as its high accuracy ...and the possibility of measuring from field conditions, collection, storage, transportation, and industrial processing and release of finished products of granular materials.The purpose of the study is to improve the efficiency of control and management of complex technological processes and moisture control devices for granular bulk materials of plant origin through the development of systems for automatic and automated control of the electrophysical characteristics of grain products and to increase the reliability of quantitative and qualitative assessments of production and technological measurement information. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to conduct analytical and experimental studies of the possibility of creating an express method for controlling the moisture content of grain and products of their industrial processing and the development of a moisture meter for automated control of raw material parameters during acceptance and storage at grain processing enterprises. The article discusses the scientific and methodological foundations for measuring the electrophysical characteristics of grain products of agricultural production and the implementation on this basis of the functional subsystem of information support by the Automated Process Control System for Controlling the Mass Ratio of Moisture of Plant Origin Materials. A critical analysis of the current state of the theory and practice of automatic control of electrophysical characteristics of grain products and the identification of the trend of their further development and improvement are carried out. A mathematical model of the interaction of a high-frequency field with a granular material has been constructed, where the influence of the elastic properties of the grain on the electrical characteristics of the electromagnetic wave, which distinguishes its behavior in the field of a high-frequency wave from many other dielectrics, has been substantiated, and the influence of a large number of various disturbing factors has been studied, often the measurement results cannot be applied in the control of the technological process due to the uneliminated error, which is the cause of inaccurate information. Primary measuring transducers of electrophysical parameters of grain products are proposed, and their mathematical models are considered. A functional scheme of the measuring device based on the dielcometric method of moisture control of grain and granular materials has been developed, and metrological characteristics have been given.

Agricultural Engineering SensorsAutomation Engineering
Mini Review Article ID: igmin168
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Analysis of Damages to Boiler Screen Tubes BKZ-160-100-GM (Barnaul Boiler Plant, steam productivity 160 t/h, pressure 100 kgf/cm2, Fuel: Natural Gas/Fuel Oil) after Reconstruction for Increased Steam Productivity to 210 t/h
by MS Popov, II Belyakov and AD Tolstyh

Reconstruction of pulverized coal boilers BKZ (Barnaul Boiler Plant, steam productivity 160 t/h, pressure 100 kgf/cm2, fuel: natural gas/fuel oil) with steam productivity of 160 t/h, converted to gas combustion, and an increased load capacity to 210 t/h, has been carried out. As part of the boiler modernization, a chem...ical water treatment system was reconstructed, significantly improving the quality of feedwater: hardness not exceeding 0.3-0.5 µeq/kg; SiO2 not exceeding 18 µg/kg, and electrical conductivity Х=0.6-1.0 µS/cm. The previously used phosphate regime for boiler water was replaced with a chelant-based regimen using trilon B. During operation, widespread damage to the screen tubes occurred. Circulation tests were conducted on one of the boilers, and an analysis of internal deposits was performed.It was determined that water circulation in the side screen is stable, and its velocities correspond to calculated values. The main cause of metal ruptures in the screen tube is metal corrosion, as well as local overheating of the wall caused by the formation of a steam layer due to the detachment of internal deposits.

Power Engineering Materials EngineeringEnergy Engineering
Short Communication Article ID: igmin164
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Massive Solar PV Potential in Sri Lanka
by Darsha Jayathunga

Sri Lanka is facing an energy crisis due to insufficient exploitation of renewable energy resources and high reliance on imported fossil fuels. Building-integrated PV (BIPV) systems are one approach that provides various benefits in countries with limited land areas and congested metropolitan regions for ensuring energ...y security. This study was conducted to evaluate the rooftop solar PV capacity and yearly electricity generation potential in selected provinces in Sri Lanka. The study found 115 km2 of rooftop area for solar PV installation in four Sri Lankan provinces; Sabaragamuwa, Western, Northern, and North Central with approximately 25 GW of solar PV installation capacity could lead to annual electricity generation of 45 TWh which could reduce carbon emissions by 20 million tCO2 per year.

Energy Engineering Power EngineeringApplied Engineering
Research Article Article ID: igmin157
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Modeling of an Electric-fired Brick Oven, Directly Heated
by André-Jacques Nlandu Mvuezolo, Jean Noël Luzolo Ngimbi and Lucien Mbozi

The purpose of this article is to propose a model of an electric-fired brick oven, with the aim of eliminating the imperfections presented by traditional brick ovens. To complete this study, we used the concepts of heat transfer, and material resistance, as well as those of computer-aided mechanical design.Deemed satis...factory, the results found give a yield of 94.5% and a cooking time of 7.29 hours based on 2000 bricks cooked.

Energy Engineering Mechanical EngineeringApplied Engineering
Research Article Article ID: igmin152
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Development of a Mechanical Seal Closed Design Model
by Serhii Shevchenko

The operating experience of mechanical seals shows that as a result of angular deformations of the rings, the wear of the contact surfaces along the radius is uneven. When designing mechanical seals, it is necessary to calculate the amount of expected leakage through the seal, friction power consumption, as well as the... possible durability of the unit. These calculated dependencies and estimates are obtained based on the constructed mechanical seal model. In the area of hydrodynamic load support in the case of a confusor joint or a converging film, the slope of the pressure diagram is such that a decrease in the film thickness increases the hydrodynamic support. This is referred to as enabling stable non-contact sealing operation. The execution of the rubbing surfaces of the interface of the end pair should ensure the formation of the calculated confusor shape of the sealing gap in all modes of operation and axisymmetric pressure fields during the rotation of the rotor.

Information Engineering SensorsArtificial Intelligence
Mini Review Article ID: igmin144
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

On the Governing Equations for Velocity and Shear Stress of some Magnetohydrodynamic Motions of Rate-type Fluids and their Applications
by Constantin Fetecau

The governing equations for the shear stress corresponding to some magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) motions of a large class of rate-type fluids are brought to light. In rectangular domains, the governing equations of velocity and shear stress are identical as form. The provided governing equations can be used to solve motion... problems of such fluids when shear stress is prescribed on the boundary. For illustration, the motion in an infinite circular cylinder with shear stress on the boundary is discussed.

Dynamics Mechatronics EngineeringApplied Engineering
Research Article Article ID: igmin140
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Enhancing Missing Values Imputation through Transformer-Based Predictive Modeling
by Hina Ayub and Harun Jamil

This paper tackles the vital issue of missing value imputation in data preprocessing, where traditional techniques like zero, mean, and KNN imputation fall short in capturing intricate data relationships. This often results in suboptimal outcomes, and discarding records with missing values leads to significant informat...ion loss. Our innovative approach leverages advanced transformer models renowned for handling sequential data. The proposed predictive framework trains a transformer model to predict missing values, yielding a marked improvement in imputation accuracy. Comparative analysis against traditional methods—zero, mean, and KNN imputation—consistently favors our transformer model. Importantly, LSTM validation further underscores the superior performance of our approach. In hourly data, our model achieves a remarkable R2 score of 0.96, surpassing KNN imputation by 0.195. For daily data, the R2 score of 0.806 outperforms KNN imputation by 0.015 and exhibits a notable superiority of 0.25 over mean imputation. Additionally, in monthly data, the proposed model’s R2 score of 0.796 excels, showcasing a significant improvement of 0.1 over mean imputation. These compelling results highlight the proposed model’s ability to capture underlying patterns, offering valuable insights for enhancing missing values imputation in data analyses.

Information Engineering Artificial IntelligenceSensors
Research Article Article ID: igmin127
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Kinetic Study of the Removal of Reafix Yellow B8G Dye by Boiler Ash
by Peterson Filisbino Prinz, Mariane Hawerroth, Liliane Schier de Lima and Juliana Martins Teixeira de Abreu Pietrobelli

The textile sector has great relevance in the Brazilian socioeconomic context, generating large volumes of effluents of varied composition, with dyes being one of the most worrying contaminants due to their characteristics of high solubility, harmfulness and low degradability. Among them the Reafix Yellow B8G (ARB8G) d...ye has an azo nature, harmful to organisms in the aquatic environment. According to Brazilian laws, it is recommended to dispose of waste through incineration or landfill, due to its resistance to biodegradation. One of the methods for treating effluents is the adsorption of contaminants using materials with adsorption capacity, such as residue from the burning of biomass in boilers (ash). The general objective of this work was to evaluate the adsorption kinetics by contact time of the ARB8G dye by boiler ash. The test was based on mixing the adsorbent material with a dye solution at 75 mg.L-1, at constant temperature and stirring at different time intervals. To quantify the amount of adsorbed dye, the UV-Vis spectrometry method was used. The kinetic test indicated an equilibrium time of 30 minutes, with 100% removal under the tested conditions. From this result and considering that boiler residue is an underutilized and low-cost material, it is concluded that this substance has significant potential to be applied as an alternative material for the treatment of effluents containing dyes.

Industrial Engineering Materials Engineering
Mini Review Article ID: igmin124
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Roadmap for Renewable Energy Development
by Penjiyev Ahmet Myradovich

The article examines the priorities and prospects of the road map for the development of renewable energy using the example of Turkmenistan. The main scientific conditions of the goal, objectives, principles of public policy, a heterogeneous class of renewable technologies, the main scientific conditions of the road ma...p for sustainable development, the environmental aspect of climate change, mitigation potential, and costs are presented. The compiled roadmap for the use of renewable energy sources outlines the expected energy, economic, and environmental effects from the use of renewable energy technologies in remote areas from the centralized power line. The author believes that the outlined development roadmap for the use of renewable energy sources will become the basis for drawing up programs in other countries, depending on natural, climatic, and geographical conditions. Thus, the road map for the development of renewable energy sources, the use of local renewable energy resources, can reduce the need for fossil fuels in some cases by up to 80% and will significantly reduce the anthropogenic load on the environment. The introduction of renewable energy sources is one of the most relevant and promising for the development of the desert and the fight against desertification in the Karakum.

Energy Engineering Power EngineeringMechatronics Engineering
Research Article Article ID: igmin119
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Solar Energy Resource Potentials of the City of Arkadag
by Penjiyev Ahmet Myradovich and Orazov Parahat Orazmuhamedovich

The article obtained systematized, scientifically substantiated gross, technical, economic, and environmental energy resource potentials from the introduction and use of solar energy technologies. The technical, economic, and environmental priorities of power plants were assessed in terms of energy efficiency, fuel eco...nomy, and the environmental impact per square meter from conversion to thermal and electrical energy in the city of Arkadag.The calculated results are, kWh/m2 per year: gross resource potential of solar energy - 1844.6; the technical potential for conversion into thermal and electrical energy is equal to - 1256.44 and 242.44; economic - 502.6 and 96.98 kg fuel equivalent/m2 per year; environmental reduction in emissions of various harmful substances into the environment when using solar photovoltaic modules in the city of Arkadag will be: with annual electricity generation per m2 - 242.44 kW⋅h, annual fuel consumption savings - 96.96 kg. e., the reduction in emissions will be, kg per year: SO2 – 2.0; NOx – 1.1; CO – 0.14; CH4 – 0.29; CO2 – 155.0; solids – 0.21; when converted into thermal energy per m2 and annual production of 1256.4 kW⋅h, annual fuel savings are 502.6 kg of fuel equivalent; emission reduction will be, kg per year: SO2 – 10.4; NOx – 5.6; CO – 0.73; CH4 – 1.53; CO2 – 803.5; solids – 1.1.Empirical equations (1-5) have been obtained taking into account the gross, technical, economic, and environmental resource potentials of solar energy in the city of Arkadag, it is possible to carry out energy and environmental forecasting when drawing up a feasibility study.

Energy Engineering Power EngineeringApplied Engineering
Research Article Article ID: igmin118
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Designing a Compact High-precision Positioner with Large Stroke Capability for Nanoindentation Devices
by Tarek Mohammad

A new design of a fine positioner or high precision driven unit with a large positioning range is proposed for a custom-made in-situ indenter device equipped inside an SEM chamber. The design configuration of the proposed system is size-effective for the confined working area of the SEM chamber. The indentation depths ...can be precisely varied by controlling the fine positioner driven by a piezoelectric actuator. The main goal is to achieve very deep penetrations toward the bottom layers of tall or large-size scale specimens by single indentation, without the need for sequential indentations. Thus, the proposed design can eliminate the need for sequential adjustments of the specimen position with respect to the indenter tip as currently being practiced by the researchers. The specimen position adjustment after each indentation heavily depends on the coarse positioner and its accuracy level in a sub-millimeter regime which could result in position errors and unwanted lateral forces in the nanoindentation process. Therefore, the sequential indentations technique could lead to considerable variations in the outcomes of nanoindentation tests done on similar specimens. The proposed design will be realized to deploy in the Continuous Stiffness Measurement (CSM) techniques generally used to evaluate elastic properties as a function of continuous penetration depth with high-frequency loading and unloading cycles.

Sensors Mechanical EngineeringMaterials Engineering
Review Article Article ID: igmin111
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Reliability Evaluation of Professional Assessments
by Charles C Thiel Jr

All professional technical assessment processes are fraught with uncertainty. If a decision is premised upon the result, the decision maker must understand the reliability of the performed assessment. A causal theory application is developed utilizing distinct (linguistic, ordered) terms and continuous (numerical) vari...ables. It uncouples the methods from the result of the assessment obtained and focuses on those aspects that are important to the reliability assessment of the conclusion, not the answer itself. Matrices provide a means of characterizing the uncertainty of the methods and information available for each principal issue impacting the reliability. These matrices are determined as paired qualitative assessments of the Quality of the Measures Used and the Quality of Implementation of component description measures. Each is qualified by two to five grades, allowing three, five, seven, or nine quality distinctions for the assessed element. Uncertainty β values are determined for each component of the assessment combined by either an RMS procedure or a weighted average and converting a numerical value back to a consistent linguistic term. This procedure yields a basis for using good judgment while being sensible and reasonably cautious by independently determining the reliability using a carefully considered approach. California State University has assessed seismic retrofit priorities for 56 buildings using this method and has committed to its continuing use as its retrofit priority evaluation tool.

Quality Engineering Industrial Engineering

Medicine Group (12)

Review Article Article ID: igmin185
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Diagnostic Challenges in Pancreatic Tumors
by Ionuţ Simion ComanElena Violeta Coman, Costin George Florea, Teodora Elena Tudose, Cosmin Burleanu, Anwar Erchid and Valentin Titus Grigorean

Background: Pancreatic tumors have a large diversity, with an increasing incidence and mortality. Although the diagnosis methods have improved in recent years, establishing a diagnosis and a histopathological type of pancreatic tumor can still pose a challenge. Aim: We propose to present a concise list of difficul...ties regarding the clinical, biological, and imagistic diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. Key information: The clinical manifestations of pancreatic tumors depend on their location and size, on the presence of metastatic lesions, but the difficulty of orientation towards this diagnosis is determined by the fact that most lesions are asymptomatic or present in the early stages of non-specific symptoms. The usual biological parameters are non-specific in pancreatic tumors in the early stages, but studies are underway regarding a series of biomarkers, genetic micro-sequences, or inorganic nanomaterials that could be used in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancers. An essential stage in the diagnosis of pancreatic tumors is represented by imaging investigations, which are associated with endoscopic and tumor biopsy procedures and can outline a picture regarding the presence of the tumor at the level of the pancreas, the relationship with the neighboring organs, the nature of the tumor and the histopathological type. There are a series of indications and limitations regarding each of these investigations, trying to develop various algorithms for the diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. Conclusion: The medical research conducted to develop new diagnostic procedures has the objective of ensuring an early diagnosis of pancreatic tumors, in a stage that offers the best chances of recovery for the patient.

Gastroenterology
Case Report Article ID: igmin181
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Peritoneal Carcinomatosis from Ovarian Cancer: A Case Report
by Andrea González De Godos, Enrique Asensio Diaz, Pilar Pinto Fuentes, Baltasar Pérez Saborido and David Pacheco Sánchez

Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in women. More than half of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage, usually due to the locoregional spread of peritoneal carcinomatosis. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman who suffered from constitutional syndrome and abdomi...nal distention. The imaging tests revealed two large, vascularized, and heterogeneous masses that depended on both ovaries. Bilateral adnexectomy was performed and the result of the anatomopathological study was endometrioid carcinoma moderately differentiated. The patient was treated according to the latest recommendations of the NCCN guidelines. A combination of systemic chemotherapy and cytoreductive surgery has been the standard treatment since the mid-1990s. However, a combination of hyperthermic intravenous and intraperitoneal chemotherapy may reduce plasma toxicity and increase therapeutic effectiveness.

Emergency Medicine
Mini Review Article ID: igmin162
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Threat to Human and Animal Health Caused by Mycotoxins and Masked Mycotoxins Occurring in Food and Feed
by Anna Pikulicka and Wiesław Barabasz

Fungi, and especially mold fungi, play a very important role in natural environments, as well as in the food industry for the production of many specialized products. However, many of them, under favorable conditions, are capable of producing toxic compounds called mycotoxins. Many of them have an adverse effect on the... growth and development of all groups of organisms, including humans. Mycotoxins can appear in all food products and animal feed. Mycotoxins accumulated in food of plant and animal origin and consumed by humans can accumulate in various tissues and organs, which results in disorders in their functioning and may cause cancer. Plants have the ability to defend themselves against mycotoxins by neutralizing them as a result of the glycosidation process. Mycotoxins neutralized in this way are called “masked mycotoxins”, which are not toxic to plants, but after entering the body of animals or humans in the digestive tract, they return back to their original toxic form. Let’s appeal and spread knowledge about mycotoxins because they pose a constant threat to the health of people and farm animals.

Environmental Health
Review Article Article ID: igmin161
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Preventing Rectal Toxicity in Prostate Cancer: Diet and Supplement Alternative to Enemas or Rectal Spacer
by Fabrizio Piro, Daria Cosentino, Ugo Piro, Gabriella Tocci and Luigi Marafioti

Background: Rectal toxicity is an important side effect of prostate cancer irradiation affecting 25% of patients. The role of dosimetric variables has a set of dose-volume constraints and curves to estimate the risk of rectal damage. The rectum position at the time of CT planning is different from the position during r...adiotherapy. Three methods are available to achieve optimal rectum position: enema; prostate cancer spacer; fiber-/fat-free diet. Methods: A 70.2 Gray radiation divided into 26 hypo-fractions was administered to 115 patients with prostate cancer by VMAT referred to a single center in Italy. To empty the rectum, all patients were administered a fiber-/fat-free diet and those with Eating Disorders (ED) were also added with activated charcoal (2 tablets/day) and a macrogol-based medical device (2 sachets/day). During treatment, the volumetric amount of rectum in the target was measured by comparing control-CT with simulation-CT, and acute toxicity was also checked. Results: The rectum position during control-CT in diet-only patients (29) predicted toxicity recorded during treatment, while in the ED group rectum position was adherent to position during simulations. Rectal volume target > 0.25 cc receiving a dose > V70 caused acute G3 toxicity that attenuated or worsened with rectal displacement. Acute rectal toxicity occurred in 6/29 (20.68%) patients (1 G3, 5 G1) in the diet-only group, while only in 1/86 (1.16%) patients (G1) in the ED group. No chronic toxicity was recorded in either group. Conclusion: Prostate cancer patients treated with VMAT, diet, charcoal, and macrogol emptied the rectum optimally and reduced incidence and severity of acute rectal toxicity, also with benefit on late toxicity.

Radiology
Review Article Article ID: igmin160
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Breast Cancer: The Road to a Personalized Prevention
by Zaira Grattagliano and Asia Grattagliano

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. It can be spread when cancer cells get into the blood or lymph system and then are carried to other parts of the body. As it is one of the leading causes of death among women, this study aims to identify the most relevant risk factors for breast cancer... through several prevention methods for early detection. The social impact of breast cancer is so strong that the World Health Organization (WHO) has established 19 October as International Breast Cancer Day. The pink ribbon is the symbol of this important day worldwide. The objective is precisely to raise awareness among the population about the disease and promote access to timely and effective diagnoses, checks, and treatments.Good prevention should be carried out through behavior or lifestyle modifications (e.g., diet, physical activity, alcohol limitation, etc.). Although, certain risk factors cannot be modified (e.g., aging, family history). Screenings are a fundamental tool to deal with breast cancer, even if sometimes they are not enough as in the case of interval cancers or in cases of particularly ambiguous presentation. Worldwide organizations recommend screening by means of ultrasound, mammography, and magnetic resonance, with appropriate follow-up for an abnormal screening test. To avoid overdiagnosis and overtreatment that can lead to long-term complications and false negatives, these screening differs by recommended ages and frequency. Identification of women at risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is also recommended with a referral for genetic testing and, in the presence of dubious lesions, a biopsy is needed. In order to fight this disease, is important to act on time, so, information is fundamental. First of all, the female population should be conscious of risk factors and of the importance of breast examinations from a young age, lastly, they should be aware of the possibility of joining programs of free screening.

Clinical Medicine Obstetrics OncologyGenetics
Brief Communication Article ID: igmin159
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Fibrin Contributes to an Improvement of an in vitro Wound Repair Model using Fibroblast-populated Collagen Lattices
by Mario Chopin-DoroteoAldo Montes de Oca-Delgado, Rosa M Salgado and Edgar Krötzsch

Incisional acute wounds of the skin are characterized by a rapid biomechanical response by stromal cell contraction that joins the wound lips through the fibrin cloth. In this work, we have performed an in vitro model using Fibroblast-Populated Collagen Lattices (FPCLs) that partially mimic that physiological process. ...Injured FPCLs under relaxed or stressed conditions were evaluated over time, and cross-sections of the lattices were stained with picrosirius red. Wounds filled with fibrin in relaxed FPCLs were closed earlier than controls, the fibrillar pattern of the collagen lattice was different between the wound and the edges of the lattice. On the other hand, stressed FPCLs did not close wounds, even those filled with fibrin, because the tension generated from the lattice borders maintained high tension towards the wound. Controls or fibrin-treated stressed FPCLs, showed high tension in the wound matrix, characterized by the high packing of collagen observed like yellow-red birefringent fibers when stained by picrosirius red. Despite wounds that remain open, fibrin-treated FPCLs exhibited less wound area than controls. With this work, we have demonstrated that FPCL models can be used to study wound closure, mainly when they are improved with other elements of the wound environment that allow us to analyze the biological process.

Dermatology Molecular MedicinePathology
Case Report Article ID: igmin154
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

A Rare Case of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Smooth Muscle Tumor of Uncertain Malignant Potential (STUMP)
by Sakshi Zawar, Priyanka Chaudhari, Viraj Borgaonkar and Utpal Gaikwad

Smooth muscle tumours are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the vulva and vagina, yet their infrequency is demonstrated by the prevalence of published reports as individual cases or small case series.This article reports a case of a 42-year-old woman who presented with apparently recurrent vulvovaginal leiomyoma an...d a past history of surgical excisions. Histopathology revealed Smooth Muscle Tumor of Uncertain Malignant Potential (STUMP).

Pathology Obstetrics OncologyGynecology
Research Article Article ID: igmin146
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Lifestyle and Well-being among Portuguese Firefighters
by Laura CarmonaRaquel Pinheiro, Joana Faria-Anjos, Sónia Namorado and Maria José Chambel

Background: Firefighters are subject to a variety of stressors, hence the importance of equipping them with resources that contribute to the management of these stressors. Aims: Considering that a healthy lifestyle is one of these resources, this study aimed to characterize the lifestyle of a Portuguese firefighte...rs sample, rate their general lifestyle level, and analyze its association with their subjective well-being (i.e., flourishing). Methods: A sample of 860 firefighters responded to an adapted version of the FANTASTIC. Results: The results showed that most (72.8%) had a good lifestyle. However, regarding each habit, a significant percentage had bad habits: sometimes consuming high-calorie foods (81.2%); sometimes having difficulties sleeping (50.9%); drinking more than 4 - 5 alcoholic drinks on the same occasion (43.9%); and exceeding their ideal weight by more than 8 kg (29.7%). However, a marked percentage also had healthy habits: having people to talk to (71%) and giving and receiving affection (63.5%); exercising at least once a week (81.5%); not smoking (63.9%); almost always eating healthily (26.7%); sometimes sleeping well (50.2%); and managing stress (56.7%). As expected, the assumption that firefighters’ lifestyle is related to their flourishing was supported. Conclusion: A healthy lifestyle is an important resource to ensure the firefighters’ flourishing and should be a part of the day-to-day life of these professionals.

Occupational Medicine Emergency MedicineEnvironmental Health
Mini Review Article ID: igmin141
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Association and New Therapy Perspectives in Post-Stroke Aphasia with Hand Motor Dysfunction
by Shuo XuChengfang Liang, Shaofan Chen, Zhiming Huang and Haoqing Jiang

Post-stroke aphasia and hand movement dysfunction are common and disabling conditions. Observations indicate that most patients with post-stroke aphasia also suffer from hand movement dysfunction. Research in human evolution, behavior, and neuroscience has revealed a strong connection between language function and hand...-motor function, with the latter playing a critical role in language use. Consequently, there is an urgent need for the development of new, comprehensive, and efficient rehabilitation methods for post-stroke aphasia that is accompanied by hand dysfunction. One promising approach involves investigating the shared neural networks between language and hand function as a foundation for novel treatment methods. This article aims to review the current state of clinical research on comprehensive treatments for stroke-induced aphasia and hand dysfunction, as well as to explore their underlying neural mechanisms. The results of this study may provide a valuable reference for the advancement of treatment technologies that effectively address both dysfunctions and enhance clinical outcomes.

Neurology Rehabilitation Medicine
Editorial Article ID: igmin139
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Contribution of Medical Periodicals to the Development of Pediatric Science in Modern Conditions
by Nikolay Shchapov

For me personally, high technologies in pediatrics are not just new opportunities for solving regular professional problems.

Paediatrics
Research Article Article ID: igmin138
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Exploring Upper Limb Kinematics in Limited Vision Conditions: Preliminary Insights from 3D Motion Analysis and IMU Data
by Artemis Zarkadoula, Themistoklis Tsatalas, George Bellis, Paris Papaggelos, Evangelia Vlahogianni, Stefanos Moustos, Eirini Koukourava and Dimitrios Tsaopoulos

This study examined upper limb kinematics under simulated visually impaired conditions. By investigating how upper limb movements adapt in these circumstances, we aimed to gain insights that may prove valuable for both healthy populations and those with clinical conditions. Data, including 3D marker-based motion captur...e and accelerometer readings, were collected from seven healthy volunteers walking on a treadmill at 1.5 m/s under two conditions: without glasses (NG) and with stroboscopic glasses (G). Each walking condition lasted 2 minutes, and two 10-second recordings were analyzed from the midpoint of each session. Contrary to our hypothesis, simulated visual impairment with stroboscopic eyewear at 6Hz did not statistically affect upper limb kinematics, specifically in terms of wrist acceleration and hand distance in the frontal plane. Future research should explore varied visual impairment conditions, extend task durations, and investigate the relationship between subjective gait difficulties and biomechanical data.

Neurology Rehabilitation MedicinePsychiatry
Research Article Article ID: igmin116
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Wishful Thinking or Valuable Forecasts? The Value of Policy Rate Predictions in Sweden
by Åsa Hansson

Economists often provide predictions about future interest or policy rates. In contrast to stock market predictions, these forecasts are typically regarded seriously and presented with a degree of accuracy. This paper explores whether placing more confidence in policy rate predictions than stock market predictions is r...easonable. It begins by examining historical policy rates predictions in Sweden, comparing them to actual rates to assess their accuracy. The paper then delves into the discussion of how costs of mispredictions, such as sudden and unexpected policy rate increases, can and should be addressed. Despite the Central Bank making predictions within confidence intervals and the banking sector regulating individuals’ borrowing, the burden of unpredicted rate increases falls almost entirely on individuals. The paper addresses whether that is reasonable.

Health Policy Health InformaticsHealth Economics