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Discover the nexus of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Medicine in our Multidisciplinary Open Access Journal – a platform for breakthroughs and collaborative expertise, driving knowledge and innovation. | Important Update! Building on our inaugural year's success, adjustments to article processing charges will take effect in October. More details coming soon!
Previous Issue

Previous Issue (Volume - 2 | Issue - 5) at IgMin Research

Our mission is to foster interdisciplinary dialogue and accelerate the advancement of knowledge across a wide spectrum of scientific domains.

Science Group (6)

Research Article Article ID: igmin192
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

AFM Analysis of Polymeric Membranes Fouling
by Gordano A

This work represents a part of a larger work, aimed at evaluating the fouling behavior of different flat polymeric membranes for low-pressure applications when placed in contact with industrial wastewater (IWW). To design and understand the operation of a membrane process it is essential to know the fouling mechanisms.Commercial PVDF and PS membranes were tested under static conditions. The reduction in membrane flux was calculated, before and after the fouling tests. Parameters such as membrane material, pore size, solids concentration, partic...le size, pH, temperature, flow rate, and pressure were studied to identify the fouling behavior of the membrane.The strong adhesion of organic molecules on the membrane surface develops a resistance to pore blockage which allows a significant decrease in the flow of clean water.It is important to note that membranes of the same material, PVDF, but with different pore size (0.2 and 0.5 mm), and membranes of different materials, PVDF and PS, but with the same pore size (0.2 mm) were tested to study the trend of surface fouling to predict it and/or design surface modifications of the membranes employed.A morphological analysis of the membranes was carried out to understand the fouling mechanism, the fouling times, and the nature of the block that determines the reduction of flow through the membrane itself.Roughness measurements reveal that roughness goes up to 120 minutes of immersing time in wastewater, but after 4 hours it returns to initial value but with a significant decrease of flux to water.Understanding the relationship between flux decline, morphology, and roughness role is key to preventing fouling and studying a valid method to clean the membrane.

Polymer Science Water Quality
Mini Review Article ID: igmin189
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Various Media used to Detoxify Abrus precatorius - A Mini Review
by Kavitha R, Rama Jeba S and Merrylin J

Abrus precatorius, sometimes referred to as jequirity bean or rosary pea, is a tropical and subtropical plant species that is extensively scattered all over. It is highly dangerous because of the presence of abrin, an exceptionally toxic protein. A. precatorius is a poisonous plant with great traditional and pharmaceutical value; therefore, to safely utilize its potential benefits, detoxification techniques are required. This review methodically examines the numerous detoxification strategies used in various media to lessen A. precatorius&rsquo...;s toxicity. There are various methods employed to detoxify the seeds which include cow’s milk, cow’s urine, fermented rice water, lemon juice, etc. The possible applications of detoxified A. precatorius in conventional medicine, pharmaceuticals, and agro-industrial sectors are also reviewed in this paper. Additionally, the paper also emphasizes new developments and potential paths for detoxification research, highlighting the necessity of creative solutions to maximize detoxification effectiveness while protecting bioactive components

Botany
Opinion Article ID: igmin186
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Comprehensive Regeneration Approach as a Framework for Sustainable Development and Biodiversity
by Stephen J Browne

Several national and international frameworks have been developed to halt and reverse biodiversity loss by 2030 and help address the ongoing climate and biodiversity crises. These frameworks provide the targets against which locally applicable action plans can be created. The Royal Commission for AlUla and the IUCN have developed Comprehensive Regeneration as the framework of nature-positive initiatives and as a model for the responsible development of AlUla County in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Biodiversity
Review Article Article ID: igmin182
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Expressivity Dimension of Speech is the basis of the Expression Dimension. Evidence from Behavioural and Neuroimaging Studies
by Isabelle Hesling

The modalities of communication are the sum of the expression dimension (linguistics) and the expressivity dimension (prosody), both being equally important in language communication. The expressivity dimension which comes first in the act of speech, is the basis on which phonemes, syllables, words, grammar, and morphosyntax, i.e., the expression dimension of speech is superimposed. We will review evidence (1) revealing the importance of prosody in language acquisition and (2) showing that prosody triggers the involvement of specific brain area...s dedicated to sentences and word-list processing. To support the first point, we will not only rely on experimental psychology studies conducted in newborns and young children but also on neuroimaging studies that have helped to validate these behavioral experiments. Then, neuroimaging data on adults will allow for the conclusion that the expressivity dimension of speech modulates both the right hemisphere prosodic areas and the left hemisphere network in charge of the expression dimension.

Linguistics Developmental BiologyCognitive Science
Review Article Article ID: igmin180
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Wishful Thinking about Consciousness
by Peter Grindrod

We contrast three very distinct mathematical approaches to the hard problem of consciousness: quantum consciousness, integrated information theory, and the very large-scale dynamical systems simulation of a network of networks. We highlight their features and their associated hypotheses, and we discuss how they are aligned or in conflict. We suggest some challenges to these theories, in considering how they might apply to the human brain as it develops both cognitive and conscious sophistication, from infancy to adulthood. We indicate how an ev...olutionary perspective challenges the distinct approaches to aver performance advantages and physiological surrogates for consciousness.

Cognitive Science Behavioral Science
Case Report Article ID: igmin179
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Into the Deep: Diving Record for the Dice Snake Natrix tessellata (Laurenti, 1768) in Lake Orta, NW Italy
by Stefano Bovero and Paola Viviana Trovò

Many snakes live close to water, with several groups displaying morphological, physiological, or behavioral adaptions to aquatic environments. Although marine snakes have been found at depths beyond 200 m, freshwater snakes are rarely reported at depths larger than a few meters. Here we report freshwater depth records for the dice snake Natrix tessellata, an aquatic snake belonging to the family Natricidae. Dice snake was observed at depths down to 17 m, including in habitats below the thermocline, in Lake Orta (Northern Italy). These observati...ons open new perspectives related to the biology and physiology of Palearctic freshwater snakes belonging to the family Natricidae.

Biodiversity EthologyEcology

Engineering Group (4)

Research Article Article ID: igmin191
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Integrated Multi-fidelity Structural Optimization for UAV Wings
by Sanusi Muhammad Babansoro, Deng Zhongmin, Hasan Mehedi and SM Tarikul Islam

The paper explores comprehensive Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) wing optimization, integrating aerodynamic and structural techniques. A detailed comparison between the base and optimized modules while considering specifications such as composite material orientation, spar and rib material, deformation, stress, strain, safety factor, and weight. The methodology utilizes material changes for wing weight reduction while maintaining structural integrity. The optimized module (Case 7) balances weight reduction, safety, and structural performance, not...ably shifting from Al 7075 to Al 2024. Structural optimization focuses on changes in Carbon Fiber/Epoxy orientation, leveraging material changes for weight reduction. Constitutive equations and transformation matrices calculate stiffness matrices for the laminate, resulting in a robust wing. This holistic optimization combines low and high-fidelity techniques, addressing UAV wing structural aspects. Outcomes include weight reduction, deformation minimization, fluttering modal deformation and buckling points, an increased factor of safety, and improved strength-to-weight ratio. The research significantly advances aerospace engineering, particularly in UAV design and optimization.

Materials Engineering Mechanical Engineering
Review Article Article ID: igmin184
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Roadmap for Greening the Economy of Turkmenistan
by Ahmet Penjiyev

Over the past decades, interest in renewable energy has grown, this is due to the aggravation of climate change. The emerging trend of decarbonization of the world economy, including transport and energy, which are one of the main sources of air pollution with carbon dioxide emissions. The article discusses issues of climate change, decarbonization scenario, a road map for “greening” the economy, and presents a brief analysis of trends in the development of hydrogen energy and the importance of the development of “green”... hydrogen in the world and in Turkmenistan. The main attention is paid to the prospects and scale of development of hydrogen energy to a certain extent will depend on the characteristics of the hydrogen sources proposed for use ­, primary energy sources and hydrogen production technologies, environmental consequences when using different approaches to hydrogen production, expected costs for hydrogen production, potential consumers and volumes of hydrogen consumption within the country and abroad, technologies for storing and delivering hydrogen to consumers, the competitiveness of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the domestic and foreign markets, taking into account all the necessary costs and a potential “transboundary carbon ­tax”.

Energy Engineering
Review Article Article ID: igmin183
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

New Scientific Field for Modelling Complex Dynamical Systems: The Cybernetics Artificial Intelligence (CAI)
by Peter P Groumpos

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been considered a revolutionary and world-changing science, although it is still a young field and has a long way to go before it can be established as a viable theory. Every day, new knowledge is created at an unthinkable speed, and the Big Data Driven World is already upon us. AI has developed a wide range of theories and software tools that have shown remarkable success in addressing difficult and challenging societal problems. However, the field also faces many challenges and drawbacks that have led some peo...ple to view AI with skepticism. One of the main challenges facing AI is the difference between correlation and causation, which plays an important role in AI studies. Additionally, although the term Cybernetics should be a part of AI, it was ignored for many years in AI studies. To address these issues, the Cybernetic Artificial Intelligence (CAI) field has been proposed and analyzed here for the first time. Despite the optimism and enthusiasm surrounding AI, its future may turn out to be a “catastrophic Winter” for the whole world, depending on who controls its development. The only hope for the survival of the planet lies in the quick development of Cybernetic Artificial Intelligence and the Wise Anthropocentric Revolution. The text proposes specific solutions for achieving these two goals. Furthermore, the importance of differentiating between professional/personal ethics and eternal values is highlighted, and their importance in future AI applications is emphasized for solving challenging societal problems. Ultimately, the future of AI heavily depends on accepting certain ethical values.

Artificial Intelligence
Research Article Article ID: igmin178
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Challenge and Readiness to Implemented Geothermal Energy in Indonesia
by Endah Murtiana Sari, Kalyca Najla Manggala, Marvian Farabi Arief and Panduaji Suswanto Umar Said

Many countries have used various strategies in the effort toward transition to alternative energy as a solution in developing renewable energy. Indonesia is the second largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. The potential of Indonesia lies in the Ring of Fire along with 117 active volcanoes, giving Indonesia high geothermal potential. This research aims to reveal and formulate the potential of geothermal as renewable energy in Indonesia as an alternative energy to be used in the future. The methods in this research are qualitative a...nd quantitative. Through the quantitative method, this research will present secondary data from various organizations as well as data from prior research on geothermal potential in the world. While qualitative method will formulate ideas of several geothermal usages from many countries by using comparison from prior research and literature from journals, books, and other publication sources. Qualitative research results will also come from in-depth interviews with stakeholders that have implemented geothermal energy in Indonesia. The result of this research will illustrate the importance of geothermal energy as an alternative renewable energy in Indonesia to replace crude oil resources as the main natural resource in Indonesia. This research recommends the mapping of resources, requiring technology as a breakthrough in processing geothermal energy to take it directly from the reservoir because of its unorthodox classification based on its source as well the cost and benefit impact on the economy related to consumer mapping to detect early the market changes of energy to geothermal.

Energy Engineering Applied Engineering

Medicine Group (5)

Research Article Article ID: igmin190
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy among Self-reported Newly Diagnosed Diabetics
by Shweta Walia

Introduction: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) poses a significant threat to individuals with diabetes, leading to visual impairment and blindness if not promptly addressed. This study focuses on the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among self-reported newly diagnosed diabetics.Material method: This is a prospective study on 200 self-reported newly diagnosed diabetics from April 2022 to May 2023. Patient data, including complaints, diabetes duration, family history, hypertension, and therapy details, were comprehensively analyzed. Complete Ocular ex...aminations including best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, slit lamp examination, fundus examinations, and Fundus fluorescein angiography were done. Diabetic Retinopathy was graded using a modified ETDRS grading system. Laboratory investigations included complete blood count, fasting and postprandial blood sugar, lipid profile, renal function test, and Hb1AC levels, providing a thorough assessment of patients’ ocular and systemic health.Result: Out of the 200 diabetics, 43.5% had diabetic retinopathy, with a slightly higher prevalence in males (44.64%) compared to females. The age group 50 - 59 had the highest prevalence (74.19%), and Hindus, Muslims, and other communities showed comparable percentages. Family history and hypertension were significant factors, with 88% of those with a family history developing retinopathy. NPDR was predominant (87.35%), while 12.64% had PDR. Clinically Significant Macular Edema (CSME) was present in 59.77%, with 80.76% of these cases having concomitant hypertension. Conclusion: The study emphasizes the imperative for early detection and comprehensive management of diabetic retinopathy among newly diagnosed diabetics. Age, gender, family history, and hypertension emerge as crucial determinants, advocating for integrated care and targeted screening programs to safeguard vision.

Ophthalmology Internal MedicineFamily Medicine
Research Article Article ID: igmin188
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

A Study to Determine the Reason for Lower Pregnancy Rates in Younger Women with Diminished Oocyte Reserve-less Chance of Implanting vs. Fetal Demise
by Jerome H Check, Brooke Neumann, Diane L Check and Michael Sobel

Most studies find lower live-delivered pregnancy rates (LDPRs) following in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in women with diminished oocyte reserve (DOR) vs. normal oocyte reserve (NOR) even in a younger population. How much of a discrepancy may depend on the degree of oocyte depletion in the DOR group and the follicular stimulation protocol. Some fertility specialists favor an FSH receptor up-regulation technique as the protocol to attain the maximum LDPRs in women with DOR. The objective of this study was to compare chemical, cli...nical, and LDPRs following IVF-ET to determine if the main time of embryo loss is very early, as evidenced by the largest discrepancy occurring in attaining even a chemical pregnancy, and/ or a large discrepancy between a chemical pregnancy and attaining a clinical pregnancy (ultrasound evidence of a gestational sac) or later losses as evidenced by showing a greater loss rate from clinical evidence of pregnancy to live delivery in those with DOR compared to NOR. Overall, the DOR group, with a mean serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level of 0.42 ng/mL, had 50% as much chance to have an LDPR/transfer as women with NOR (AMH of 4.66) despite the same number of day 3 embryos transferred. The main reduction in LDPRs occurred from embryo transfer failing to attain a positive clinical pregnancy in the DOR group. The least discrepancy was from attaining a clinical pregnancy to live delivery. Thus, for NOR from positive pregnancy test 59% of this younger age group will have a live delivery vs. 50% for DOR. Thus, the reduction in LDPRS/transfer in young women with DOR vs. NOR seems mostly very early so the DOR group does not even attain a positive serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level. This suggests that this inferiority in attaining a live delivery may be related to aneuploidy involving large chromosomes or a marked decrease in the mitochondrial DNA of the embryo.

Gynecology
Research Article Article ID: igmin187
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Examining the Causal Connection between Lipid-lowering Medications and Malignant Meningiomas through Drug-target Mendelian Randomization Analysis
by Liantai Song, Xiaoyan Guo, Wenhui Zhang, Mengjie Li, Xinyi Wu, Ziqian Kou, Yuxin Wang, Zigeng Ren and Qian Xu

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the causal link between the use of statins, a type of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, and the risk of developing malignant meningiomas, which are aggressive and recurrent tumors of the central nervous system with limited treatment options.Methods: Using Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis, the study explored the relationship between genetic variants related to the expression of lipid-lowering drug targets (HMGCR, PCSK9, NPC1L1, and APOB) and malignant meningiomas.... The analysis utilized data from Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) databases, with a focus on the genetic homogeneity of the Finnish population. Instrumental variables for the MR analysis were derived from significant eQTLs for the mentioned drug targets.Results: The MR analysis found a significant association between genetic variants linked to HMGCR inhibitor (statin) exposure and a reduced risk of malignant meningiomas. Specifically, an increased expression of the HMGCR gene in the blood was associated with lower susceptibility to malignant meningiomas (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.05 - 6.31; p = 0.039). No significant associations were observed for other lipid-lowering drug targets.Conclusion: Preliminary evidence suggests that statin use may lower the risk of developing malignant meningiomas, indicating a potential therapeutic benefit for managing this type of cancer. However, further research, including clinical trials, is necessary to confirm these findings and understand the mechanisms behind the protective effect of statins against malignant meningiomas.

Pharmacology Molecular Medicine
Review Article Article ID: igmin185
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Diagnostic Challenges in Pancreatic Tumors
by Ionuţ Simion Coman, Elena Violeta Coman, Costin George Florea, Teodora Elena Tudose, Cosmin Burleanu, Anwar Erchid and Valentin Titus Grigorean

Background: Pancreatic tumors have a large diversity, with an increasing incidence and mortality. Although the diagnosis methods have improved in recent years, establishing a diagnosis and a histopathological type of pancreatic tumor can still pose a challenge. Aim: We propose to present a concise list of difficulties regarding the clinical, biological, and imagistic diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. Key information: The clinical manifestations of pancreatic tumors depend on their location and size, on the presence of metastatic lesions..., but the difficulty of orientation towards this diagnosis is determined by the fact that most lesions are asymptomatic or present in the early stages of non-specific symptoms. The usual biological parameters are non-specific in pancreatic tumors in the early stages, but studies are underway regarding a series of biomarkers, genetic micro-sequences, or inorganic nanomaterials that could be used in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancers. An essential stage in the diagnosis of pancreatic tumors is represented by imaging investigations, which are associated with endoscopic and tumor biopsy procedures and can outline a picture regarding the presence of the tumor at the level of the pancreas, the relationship with the neighboring organs, the nature of the tumor and the histopathological type. There are a series of indications and limitations regarding each of these investigations, trying to develop various algorithms for the diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. Conclusion: The medical research conducted to develop new diagnostic procedures has the objective of ensuring an early diagnosis of pancreatic tumors, in a stage that offers the best chances of recovery for the patient.

Gastroenterology
Case Report Article ID: igmin181
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Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Peritoneal Carcinomatosis from Ovarian Cancer: A Case Report
by Andrea González De Godos, Enrique Asensio Diaz, Pilar Pinto Fuentes, Baltasar Pérez Saborido and David Pacheco Sánchez

Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in women. More than half of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage, usually due to the locoregional spread of peritoneal carcinomatosis. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman who suffered from constitutional syndrome and abdominal distention. The imaging tests revealed two large, vascularized, and heterogeneous masses that depended on both ovaries. Bilateral adnexectomy was performed and the result of the anatomopathological study was endometrioid carci...noma moderately differentiated. The patient was treated according to the latest recommendations of the NCCN guidelines. A combination of systemic chemotherapy and cytoreductive surgery has been the standard treatment since the mid-1990s. However, a combination of hyperthermic intravenous and intraperitoneal chemotherapy may reduce plasma toxicity and increase therapeutic effectiveness.

Emergency Medicine