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Mini Review Article ID: igmin174

The use of FIKR (Facet, Insight, Knowledge, and Resilience) Personality as an Effective Assessment Tool to Select the Best Leadership in an Organization

Chee Kong Yap 1 * ,
Chee Seng Leow 2 and
Wing Sum Vincent Leong 2

Received 11 Apr 2024 Accepted 19 Apr 2024 Published online 22 Apr 2024

Abstract

This study presents a new assessment tool, FIKR (Facet, Insight, Knowledge, and Resilience) Personality Traits (PTs) for organisational talent development and leadership. The FIKR assessment tool offers a thorough framework for developing talent and leadership, covering facets, insights, knowledge, and resilience. By using these elements, individuals can enhance their ability to successfully and strategically guide and influence others. Gaining self-awareness of one’s strengths and shortcomings, harmonising personal values with objectives for developing talents, obtaining the requisite information and abilities, and cultivating resilience not only promotes personal progress but also cultivates the potential of people within the organisation. By embracing the interaction of these FIKR characteristics, one may adopt a comprehensive and influential approach to talent development and leadership.

Introduction

In today’s rapidly changing world, talent development and effective leadership are crucial for organizations to thrive. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between personality facets and talent development, shedding light on how individual characteristics can impact an individual’s ability to develop and excel in their talents [11Blair CA, Palmieri RE, Paz-Aparicio C. Do Big 5 Personality Characteristics and Narcissism Predict Engagement in Leader Development? Front Psychol. 2018 Sep 28; 9:1817. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01817. PMID: 30323781; PMCID: PMC6172568.-33Cotterill ST, Fransen K. Leadership development in sports teams. 2021. https://lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/680620/2/Full%20text%20Chapter%20Leadership%20Development.pdf]. Therefore, it is important to understand this relationship.

The impact of personality on leadership effectiveness has been widely studied and documented in the literature. Studies have consistently shown that certain personality traits are associated with effective leadership. For example, extraversion has consistently been positively associated with leadership effectiveness. In addition, conscientiousness is another trait that is positively correlated with leadership effectiveness. Individuals who are high in conscientiousness are typically organized, responsible, and dependable. These qualities allow them to plan and execute tasks effectively, make informed decisions, and establish order and structure in their teams or organizations [44Denison DR, Mishra AK. Towards a Theory of Organisational Culture and Effectiveness. Organisation Science. 1995; 6(2):204–223. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.6.2.204-3737Marjanović JZ, Krstić K, Rajić M, Ilić SI, Videnović M, Dimitrijević AA. The Big Five and Collaborative Problem Solving: A Narrative Systematic Review. European Journal of Personality. 2023; 08902070231198650.].

The FIKR (Facet, Insight, Knowledge, and Resilience) Personality Traits (PTs) assessment tool is a valuable tool that can be utilized for talent development and leadership in an organization [3838Nikookar H, Kashani SH, Norouzi Z, Zahedfar K, Nasseri S. The relationship between personality types and leadership styles in governmental organisations: Evidence from Iran. International Journal of Research in Organisational Behaviour and Human Resource Management. 2014; 2(3):179-192.]. Some objectives of using the FIKR personality traits assessment tool include: 1) Identifying and understanding the various facets of an individual’s personality, including their strengths, weaknesses, and potential areas for growth. 2) Gaining insights into an individual’s personality traits and how they can contribute to their effectiveness as a leader. 3) Assessing the knowledge and skills of individuals to identify areas where further development may be necessary. 4) Promoting resilience and the ability to adapt to challenging situations is crucial for effective leadership in a dynamic and changing organizational environment.

Therefore, this paper aims to propose a novel FIKR PTs as an effective assessment tool in talent development and leadership in an organization.

The FIKR assessment tool in talent development and leadership

Figure 1 shows the new assessment tool using FIKR in talent development and leadership. Using FIKR of personality can greatly influence talent development and leadership in various ways. Understanding how personality traits influence talent development and leadership is crucial to organizational success. FIKR, representing Facet, Insight, Knowledge, and Resilience, significantly shapes individuals’ capabilities and leadership potential.

A proposed assessment tool using FIKR in talent development and leadership. Figure 1: A proposed assessment tool using FIKR in talent development and leadership.

The following is the assessment tool with FIKR.

  1. a) Facet: Personality

Facet is about recognizing and understanding the various dimensions of an individual’s personality. By examining different facets, one can gain insights into strengths, weaknesses, and potential areas for development.

The facet aspect of FIKR allows individuals to identify and understand their specific strengths and weaknesses. For instance, individuals may discover through self-reflection and assessment that they excel in analytical thinking and problem-solving but struggle with public speaking or conflict management. This self-awareness of facets can guide individuals in selecting and developing talents that align with their strengths while also identifying areas for improvement.

  1. b) Insight: Self-awareness

Insight involves introspection and self-awareness, allowing individuals better to understand their behaviours, motivations, and reactions. This self-reflection is essential for personal growth and effective leadership.

The insight aspect of FIKR enables individuals to better understand their motivations, values, and passions. This understanding can serve as a compass for talent development and leadership, as individuals can align their goals and aspirations with their values. For instance, leaders who value social justice and equality may focus their talent development efforts on initiatives that promote diversity and inclusion within their organization.

  1. c) Knowledge: Acquiring skills

Knowledge is the foundation for talent development and leadership. Individuals can enhance their capabilities by acquiring new skills, expertise, and information and confidently adapt to changing environments.

The knowledge aspect of FIKR equips individuals with the necessary information and skills to develop and lead talent effectively. This includes knowledge of various methods and strategies for talent identification, assessment, and development. For instance, leaders knowledgeable about different leadership styles and their impact on talent development can adapt their approach accordingly to maximize their team’s potential.

  1. d) Resilience: Challenges

Resilience is the ability to bounce back from setbacks and challenges. Developing resilience allows individuals to persevere in facing difficulties, learn from failures, and grow as effective leaders.

The resilience aspect of FIKR plays a crucial role in talent development and leadership. It allows individuals to navigate challenges and setbacks with perseverance and adaptability. For example, a highly resilient leader can bounce back from failures and setbacks, inspire their team to overcome obstacles, and foster a culture of continuous learning and growth.

The overall impacts and advantages of using FIKR assessment tool

Development: Integrating FIKR principles in talent development and leadership practices can improve decision-making, enhance team dynamics, and improve organizational performance. Individuals can unlock their full potential and drive success by leveraging Facet, Insight, Knowledge, and Resilience.

Empowering: Empowering individuals with the tools and understanding of FIKR can create a continuous growth and development culture. Organizations can foster innovation, collaboration, and leadership excellence by encouraging employees to embrace their unique personalities and leverage FIKR principles.

Future Success: As organizations navigate the complexities of the modern business landscape, embracing FIKR becomes essential for sustainable growth and success. By nurturing individuals’ Facets, Insight, Knowledge, and Resilience, organizations can build resilient leaders who drive innovation, inspire teams, and achieve long-term success.

Using FIKR of personality in talent development and leadership can lead to more effective and strategic approaches to developing and leading individuals. In addition to the facets, insight, knowledge, and resilience, using FIKR in talent development and leadership also involves a deeper understanding of how these aspects interplay. For example, individuals with strong insight into their motivations and values can leverage this self-awareness to guide their talent development efforts. Knowing one’s passions and aligning them with talent development goals can lead to more meaningful and impactful leadership. Furthermore, the knowledge aspect of FIKR extends beyond just skill acquisition. It encompasses understanding the organizational context, industry trends, and the dynamics of talent retention and development. Leaders who possess this knowledge can make informed decisions and implement strategies tailored to their team members’ specific needs and aspirations.

Moreover, the resilience aspect of FIKR is not just about personal perseverance but also about creating a supportive and growth-oriented environment for others. A leader’s ability to foster resilience in their team members can significantly impact how individuals approach challenges and setbacks, leading to a more resilient and agile organization.

By delving deeper into the interconnectedness of these FIKR aspects, individuals can develop a holistic approach to talent development and leadership that not only focuses on personal growth but also nurtures the growth and potential of others.

The personality traits of FIKR are well-supported by reported literature

Many papers in the literature support the 200 questionnaires in FIKR for identifying successful leaders [3939Decuypere A, Audenaert M, Decramer A. When Mindfulness Interacts with Neuroticism to Enhance Transformational Leadership: The Role of Psychological Need Satisfaction. Front Psychol. 2018 Dec 18; 9:2588. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02588. PMID: 30619000; PMCID: PMC6305618.-4747Conn SR, Rieke ML, Carson AD. The 16PF Fifth Edition Technical Manual. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing. ‘The integration of interests, aptitudes and personality traits: A test of Lowman’s Matrix’, Journal of Career Assessment. 1994; 6(1):83-105.]. These studies consistently indicate that three clusters of traits are important for leadership success.

First, highly efficient leaders tend to be higher on Independence and its primary traits of Dominance, Openness-to-Change, and Social Boldness. Second, effective leaders tend to be below average in Anxiety and its traits of Emotional Stability and Apprehension. Third, leaders tend to be above average in Extraversion and its traits of Warmth, Liveliness, and Social Boldness. Leaders also tend to be above average in Reasoning Ability and somewhat above average in self-control traits. Many of these studies also predicted important differences in management style and behaviours. For example, top-level leaders whose roles involve developing long-term, innovative goals tend to score higher on Reasoning Ability, Abstractedness, and Openness-to-Change [4040Zhang K, Chen C, Tang N. When is a higher LMX comparison not always effective? The role of team-level LMX disparity and neuroticism. European Journal of Work and Organisational Psychology. 2023; 32(6):870-885., 46 46Christiansen ND, Goffin RD, Johnston NG, Rothstein MG. Correcting for faking: Effects on criterion-related validity and individual hiring decisions’, Personnel Psychology. 1994; 47(4):847-60.,4747Conn SR, Rieke ML, Carson AD. The 16PF Fifth Edition Technical Manual. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing. ‘The integration of interests, aptitudes and personality traits: A test of Lowman’s Matrix’, Journal of Career Assessment. 1994; 6(1):83-105.].

On the other hand, leaders in applied manufacturing and operations roles tend to score below average on Sensitivity and Abstractedness and above average on Perfectionism and Rule-Consciousness. Many studies have predicted other aspects of leadership style, such as supervision style [4646Christiansen ND, Goffin RD, Johnston NG, Rothstein MG. Correcting for faking: Effects on criterion-related validity and individual hiring decisions’, Personnel Psychology. 1994; 47(4):847-60.,48-5548-55Guastello SJ, Rieke ML. The 16PF and Leadership: Summary of Research Findings 1954–1992. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing. 1993.].

Conclusion

The FIKR assessment tool provides a comprehensive talent development and leadership framework, encompassing facets, insight, knowledge, and resilience. By integrating these aspects, individuals can develop and lead others more effectively and strategically. Understanding one’s strengths and weaknesses, aligning personal values with talent development goals, acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills, and fostering resilience not only benefit individual growth but also nurture the potential of others within the organization. Embracing the interplay of these FIKR aspects can lead to a holistic and impactful approach to talent development and leadership. More studies are needed to understand the limitations of FIKR PTs in other areas of leadership.

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Yap CH, Leow CH, Leong WSV. The use of FIKR (Facet, Insight, Knowledge, and Resilience) Personality as an Effective Assessment Tool to Select the Best Leadership in an Organization. IgMin Res. . 22 Apr, 2024; 2(4): 261-265. IgMin ID: igmin174; DOI:10.61927/igmin174; Available at: igmin.link/p174

  • Received
    11 Apr 2024

  • Accepted
    19 Apr 2024

  • Published
    22 Apr 2024

DOI10.61927/igmin174

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Topics
  1. Blair CA, Palmieri RE, Paz-Aparicio C. Do Big 5 Personality Characteristics and Narcissism Predict Engagement in Leader Development? Front Psychol. 2018 Sep 28; 9:1817. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01817. PMID: 30323781; PMCID: PMC6172568.

  2. Bonsteel S. APA PsycNET. The Charleston Advisor. 2012; 16-19(4). https://doi.org/10.5260/chara.14.1.16

  3. Cotterill ST, Fransen K. Leadership development in sports teams. 2021. https://lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/680620/2/Full%20text%20Chapter%20Leadership%20Development.pdf

  4. Denison DR, Mishra AK. Towards a Theory of Organisational Culture and Effectiveness. Organisation Science. 1995; 6(2):204–223. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.6.2.204

  5. Ensari N, Riggio RE, Christian J, Carslaw G. Who emerges as a leader? Meta-analyses of individual differences as predictors of leadership emergence. Personality and Individual Differences. 2011; 51(4):532–536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.05.017

  6. Ho SL, Davern M, Tam KY. Personalisation and choice behaviour. ACM Sigmis Database. 2008; 39(4):31–47. https://doi.org/10.1145/1453794.1453800

  7. Hogan R, Kaiser RB. What do we know about leadership? Review of General Psychology. 2005; 9(2):169-180. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.9.2.169

  8. John JM, Gropper H, Thiel A. The role of critical life events in the talent development pathways of athletes and musicians: A systematic review. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2019.101565

  9. Jonason PK, Wee S, Li NP, Jackson CJ. Occupational niches and the Dark Triad traits. Personality and Individual Differences. 2014; 69:119-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.05.024

  10. Jong ND, Wisse B, Heesink J, Zed KIVD. Personality Traits and Career Role Enactment: Career Role Preferences as a Mediator. Frontiers in Psychology. 2019; 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01720

  11. Judge TA, Cable DM. Applicant personality, organizational culture, and organization attraction. Personnel Psychology. 1997; 50(2):359-394. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1997.tb00912.x

  12. Kirkpatick SA, Locke EA. Leadership: do traits matter?.Academy of Management Perspectives. 1991; 5(2):48-60. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.1991.4274679

  13. Klimstra TA, Luyckx K, Germeijs V, Meeus WH, Goossens L. Personality traits and educational identity formation in late adolescents: longitudinal associations and academic progress. J Youth Adolesc. 2012 Mar;41(3):346-61. doi: 10.1007/s10964-011-9734-7. Epub 2011 Dec 7. PMID: 22147120.

  14. Mount MK, Barrick MR. Five reasons why the “big five” article has been frequently cited: The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta‐ Personnel Psychology. 1998; 51(4):849-857. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1998.tb00743.x

  15. Ng KY, Ang S, Chan KY. Personality and leader effectiveness: a moderated mediation model of leadership self-efficacy, job demands, and job autonomy. J Appl Psychol. 2008 Jul;93(4):733-43. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.4.733. PMID: 18642980.

  16. Olszewski-Kubilius P, Kulieke MJ, Krasney N. Personality Dimensions of Gifted Adolescents: A Review of the Empirical Literature. Gifted Child Quarterly. 1988; 32(4):347–352. https://doi.org/10.1177/001698628803200403

  17. Subotnik RF, Olszewski-Kubilius P, Worrell FC. Environmental Factors and Personal Characteristics Interact to Yield High Performance in Domains. Front Psychol. 2019 Dec 18; 10:2804. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02804. PMID: 31920847; PMCID: PMC6930243.

  18. Campbell L, Simpson JA, Stewart M, Manning J. Putting personality in social context: extraversion, emergent leadership, and the availability of rewards. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2003 Dec;29(12):1547-59. doi: 10.1177/0146167203256920. PMID: 15018685.

  19. Felfe J, Schyns B. Personality and the Perception of Transformational Leadership: The Impact of Extraversion, Neuroticism, Personal Need for Structure, and Occupational Self-Efficacy, Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 2006; 36(3):708-739. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00026.x

  20. Moss S, Ritossa D, Ngu S. The effect of follower regulatory focus and extraversion on leadership behaviour: The role of emotional intelligence. Journal of Individual Differences. 2006; 27(2):93-107. https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001.27.2.93

  21. Lemoine GJ, Aggarwal I, Steed LB. When women emerge as leaders: effects of extraversion and gender composition in groups. The Leadership Quarterly. 2016; 27(3):470-486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2015.12.008

  22. Grant AM, Gino F, Hofmann DA. Reversing the Extraverted Leadership Advantage: The Role of Employee Proactivity, Academy of Management Journal. 2011; 54(3):528-550.

  23. Campbell L, Simpson JA, Stewart M, Manning J. Putting personality in social context: extraversion, emergent leadership, and the availability of rewards. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2003 Dec;29(12):1547-59. doi: 10.1177/0146167203256920. PMID: 15018685.

  24. Felfe J, Schyns B. Personality and the Perception of Transformational Leadership: The Impact of Extraversion, Neuroticism, Personal Need for Structure, and Occupational Self-Efficacy, Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 36(3):708-739.

  25. Moss S, Ritossa D, Ngu S. The effect of follower regulatory focus and extraversion on leadership behaviour: The role of emotional intelligence. Journal of Individual Differences. 2006; 27(2):93-107.

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