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Research Article Article ID: igmin132

Methodology of the Professional-Business Game for the Development of a Cadet Leader in Professional Training Courses (L-1B) of the Tactical Level of Military Education

Igor Kozubtsov *

Received 07 Dec 2023 Accepted 26 Dec 2023 Published online 27 Dec 2023

Abstract

The aim of the study is to develop a methodology for a professional-business game for the development of a cadet leader in professional training courses (L-1B) of the tactical level of military education on the example of teaching the discipline “Combat use of military communication systems and complexes”. After all, the most important prerequisite for the combat potential of the Armed Forces of Ukraine is a comprehensively trained officer-leader, his consciousness, knowledge, skills, military-technical qualifications, creative and innovative activity, developed emotional and volitional sphere of the psyche, beliefs, motivation, and ideals. The article summarizes the research on the state of development of a cadet leader in Ukraine. In the context of a full-scale war, there is a need to strengthen the development of the personality of a cadet leader (a future officer of the tactical level of military education). Today’s cadet-leader is tomorrow’s officer-leader, capable of integrating knowledge and solving complex problems in new or unfamiliar environments with incomplete or limited information, being a leader and authority for the personnel. Therefore, the scientific and practical task arises to consider aspects of the development of the personality of a cadet leader and to modernize the process of his development, for example, in the courses of professional military education L-1B (tactical level of military education) in terms of the disciplines of the Department of Combat Use of Communication Units. The periodization of cadets’ adaptation to the new educational space and service activities is considered, the optimal period of leader growth is determined, and the mechanism itself is proposed. The article separately identifies the key tasks for the selection of academic staff and admission to the educational process. The methodology of the professional and business game for the development of a cadet leader in professional training courses (L-1B) of the tactical level of military education is developed on the example of teaching the discipline “Combat use of military communication systems and complexes”. The scientific novelty of the work is the improved educational process of training and development of a cadet leader in professional training courses (L-1B) of the tactical level of military education by reformatting group classes in the traditional format into a professional business game for the positions of officers with the introduction of typical and atypical (force majeure) training tasks for cadets in everyday activities in new or unfamiliar environments in the presence of incomplete or limited information.

Introduction

The most important prerequisite for the combat capability of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and victory in the war is a comprehensively trained officer-leader, his consciousness, knowledge, skills, military and technical qualifications, creative and innovative activity, developed emotional and volitional sphere of the psyche, beliefs, motivation, and ideals. Therefore, the state program for the development of the Armed Forces of Ukraine in wartime places new demands on the system of training future military professionals on the basis of leadership.

The problem of leadership in a military team has always been highly relevant. Today, scholars who have studied it point out that by his status, an officer is the formal leader of his unit, but this is often not enough to effectively lead subordinates in a difficult environment that places additional demands on the professional personal qualities of an officer. It is noted that in modern society, there is a contradiction between the State’s need for highly qualified officers capable of skillfully managing a unit and being leaders of their teams and the real level of professional and personal training received by graduates of higher military educational institutions.

Higher military educational institutions (HMEIs) have gained some invaluable experience in training future military specialists in the conditions of war, but it needs further improvement and put forward new tasks for scientific and pedagogical staff and commanders to ensure the training of cadets on the basis of leadership development [11Kozubtsov I. Problems of failure of the existing model of personnel management of the armed forces of Ukraine in the conditions of external military aggression. The 1st International Scientific and Practical Conference "Law and Public Administration – New Development Trends" «LPA–NDT». 2022; 22-24.,22Ostapchuk VM. Choosing a military profession by modern youth: a conscious decision or an accident? Society. State. Army. Collection of scientific papers (Humanities and socio-economic sciences). 2022; 26; 4-7.]. Currently, there are three main areas of leadership concepts [33Kokun OM. Psychological structure of leadership qualities of the future officer. Bulletin of the National Defense University of Ukraine. 2012; 4 (29): 170-174.]:

  1. Concepts that substantiate the superiority of the factor of personality traits.
  2. Concepts in which the situation is considered the decisive factor.
  3. Concepts that combine personality and situational factors.

The vast majority of the training time (75% - 85% of the total training time budget) is spent in study groups. The manifestation of individual leadership traits is most pronounced when studying at the age of 17-25. The more closely the leadership characteristics of each cadet are studied, the more productive the pedagogical and educational work is.

The knowledge of the individual potential capabilities of cadets by the cadet unit commander and teachers allows them to implement and predict personality-oriented training, to achieve maximum results in the service and educational activities of the future officer-leader - defender of the homeland. The approved Doctrine of Military Leadership Development in the Armed Forces of Ukraine [44VKP 7-00(03).01. Doctrine of Military Leadership Development in the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Kyiv: Main Department of Doctrine and Training of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Center for Operational Standards and Methods of Training of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, 2020; 27.] reflects the system of views on military leadership in the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the basic principles of its development, standards, levels, values, virtues, character traits, and basic competencies of military leaders, but does not provide a clear methodology or recommendations for teachers to take practical action.

Analysis of research and publications

In the course of the study, the scientific literature on the subject of research - the study of theoretical approaches to the development of a leadership personality - was analyzed by the method of historical analysis and generalization.

For example, in [55Telelym VM, Prykhodko YI. State and trends in the development of military education in the leading countries of the world in the context of their defense capabilities. Collection of scientific works of the Military Institute of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. 2012;36: 6-17.], V. Telelym and Yu. Prykhodko revealed a complex dependence of leadership in military education in NATO countries and its impact on the state’s defense capability, and therefore a promising direction for improving the training of military specialists depending on modern forms and types of armed struggle [66Telelym VM, Prykhodko YI. Training of military specialists in the context of modern forms and types of armed struggle. Collection of scientific works of the Military Institute of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. 2013; 42: 198-210.]. These dependencies have prompted the study of the peculiarities of the development of military education on the basis of leadership [77Telelym VM, Prykhodko I. Military education in the system of security and defense of the state. Science and Defense. 2013; 4: 21-28.]. After all, education is the main investment in the development of human capital in the security and defense sector of Ukraine [88Punda Yu. Education is the main investment in the development of human capital in the security and defense sector of Ukraine. Science and Defense. 2018; 1: 34-40.], and the formation of the personnel potential of the Armed Forces of any country on the basis of leadership qualities is the key to military and professional management [99Zabolotnyi O, Zelnytskyi A, Oliferuk V, Shabatina N. Personnel Potential of the Armed Forces and the Quality of Higher Military Education: Analysis of Concepts and System of Relations. Collection of scientific works "Military Education". 2018; 2 (38): 92-103.,1010Syrotenko AM, Bohunov SO, Prykhodko YuI. Innovations in the system of training military specialists with higher education: concept, essence, focus. Science and Defense. 2018; 3: 38-46.].

Paper [1111Tyurin VV, Saliy AG, Kasyanenko MV, Openko PV, Martyniuk OR. Substantiation of the model of training of Air Force specialists in modern conditions. Science and Defense. 2019; 9 (4): 20-26.] for the first time substantiates a model of training specialists for the Air Force adapted to the realities of hybrid warfare. At the same time, a comparative analysis of the educational programs of the education and training systems of educational institutions of NATO member countries confirmed the existence of national differences [11, p. 21]. Officer training includes vocational education and professional training in a combination of formal and non-formal education. Vocational training is divided into two subsystems: vocational training and professional competence development. Vocational training has the same structure as in NATO educational institutions.

A study under the scientific guidance of D. Viter [1212Viter D, Mitiahin O. Professionalization of military education in Ukraine: main directions, content and prospects. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2020; 1(41): 81-90.] focused on the search for promising areas of professionalization and leadership in military education. Further research [1313Oliferuk V, Viter D, Shabatina N. Modeling the process of military education development in Ukraine: principles and approaches to standardization. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2020; 2(42): 223-229.] modeled the process of developing military education in Ukraine in the direction of integration with NATO. According to the authors, a significant increase in the combat capability of the Armed Forces of Ukraine will be achieved [1414Viter D, Mitiahin O. Strategic priorities for improving the combat capability of the Armed Forces of Ukraine in the context of professionalization of military education: policies and procedures. Collection of scientific works of the CISS. 2020; 1(68): 133-137.]. To regulate at the legislative level the process of development of the military education system in Ukraine, based on the standards and approaches adopted in NATO member states, it is necessary to amend the existing legal acts of Ukraine [1515Viter D, Oliferuk V. The concept of development of the military education system of Ukraine. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44): 29-42.].

The chosen course of Ukraine’s accession to NATO, and thus the need to reform the system of higher military education in line with NATO member states, is evident in a study under the scientific guidance of the Director of the Department of Military Education and Science of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine [1616Rusnak I, Mirnenko V, Kas’ianenko M, Oliferuk V, Viter D. Innovative military education: state and prospects of development. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44): 9-20.] to substantiate a promising model of the military education system of Ukraine. According to the authors, the proposed model ensures the implementation of the standards of education and training of NATO member states in the national military education system. The advantages of the proposed model of military education in Ukraine are determined through the indicator of acquiring operational capabilities of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and the successful fulfillment of their tasks.

The results of the comparative analysis of training systems in NATO educational institutions and the training system in NATO member states presented in [1717Mityagin O.Education and Individual Training in NATO Countries. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44): 131-143.] have become a vector for the development of the system of professional military education in Ukraine in the context of acquiring operational planning skills by officers according to NATO standards.

Highlighting aspects that are understudied

As can be established for the period of time 2012-2021, researchers have proposed promising fundamentally new models of the system of higher military education, which are gradually being implemented by the Department of Military Education and Science of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine. To assess the effectiveness and the level of ideality (compliance) of the result with the stated benefits in the military education system, it is necessary to have an adequate feedback system. The role and place of feedback in the system of change management of military education is not overstated and is conditioned by the need to transfer from the current state to the required (desired) state under the influence of certain factors of the external and internal environment.

Thus, the training of officers in NATO educational institutions is aimed at acquiring exclusively military professional competencies through leadership courses (L1-L4) without reference to a specific position but linked to military ranks. The uniqueness of the officer training system in the Republic of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia is that in addition to leadership L-courses, there are specialized advanced training courses that provide for the acquisition of a military specialty or qualification and help to improve the performance of their duties [18, p. 31]. Unlike NATO educational institutions, Ukrainian military universities have already introduced training for officers with national characteristics. This difference lies in the inclusion of the basic training courses L-1A and L-1B in the educational and professional program of bachelor’s and master’s degrees in civilian fields of knowledge [1919Mitiahin O. Education and individual training in NATO countries. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44): 131-143.]. After successful completion of the training, the graduate will be able to occupy primary positions (platoon commander, deputy company commander). Before being appointed to the position of company commander, an officer must complete the L-1C (company) professional education course at a military university. Subsequently, professional military education of specialists is carried out at the L-2 course at the military higher education institution and at the Ivan Chernyakhovsky National Defense University of Ukraine at the L-3, L-4, and L-5 courses.

However, at present, the development of a methodology for a professional-business game for the development of a cadet leader in professional training courses (L-1B) of the tactical level of military education based on the preliminary results of a hybrid war is not yet resolved.

The aim of the study is to develop a methodology for a professional business game for the development of a cadet leader in professional training courses (L-1B) of the tactical level of military education on the example of teaching the discipline “Combat use of military communication systems and complexes”.

The purpose of the educational program of the course of professional military education (professional course of tactical level L1B) is to train personnel for primary positions of tactical level officers in the specialty of information systems and technologies, specialization of automated control systems for troops and weapons.

Purpose of the article

The purpose of the article is to test the developed methodology of a professional-business game for the development of a cadet leader in professional training courses (L-1B) of the tactical level of military education on the example of teaching the discipline “Combat use of military communication systems and complexes”.

Objectives (goals) and research methods

To achieve this goal, the following tasks were set:

  1. To analyze current research.
  2. To substantiate new solutions.

The basic tools of scientific research were used to achieve the goal:

Stage 1: Methods of theoretical historical analysis and synthesis of scientific literature (including from Internet sources by keywords) on the research topic to determine the level of development of the topic, which aspects have been studied, and to identify aspects that are insufficiently studied;

Stage 2: The method of synthesizing individual fragments and ideas - to develop a methodology for a professional-business game for the development of a cadet leader in professional training courses (L-1B) of the tactical level of military education on the example of teaching the discipline “Combat use of military communication systems and complexes”.

For this purpose, it is proposed to organize group classes in the discipline “Combat use of military communication systems and complexes” in the form of a professional business game, taking into account scientific approaches to teaching, namely: competence-based (N. Avdeieva, N. Bibik, O. Didenko, E. Zeer, I. Zimnya, V. Kraevskyi, A. Markova, L. Mitina, O. Ovcharuk, L. Petrovska, O. Pometun, J. Raven, I. Rodigina, H. Selevko, O. Savchenko, S. Sysoieva, A. Khutorsky, etc.); activity (L. Vygotsky, P. Halperin, V. Davydov, I. Kozubtsov, A. Leontiev, V. Shadrykov, V. Yudin, etc.); cultural (V. Artemov, V. Balabushevych, O. Didenko, A. Gursky, N. Zamotaieva, I. Kozubtsov, L. Petrenko, Y. Khlaponin, and others); psychological support for the development of leadership qualities of future officers (N. Agayev, O. Kokun, I. Pishko, N. Lozinska, M. Herasymenko, V. Tkachenko [2020Agayev NA, Kokun OM, Pishko IO, Lozinska NS, Gerasimenko MV, Tkachenko VV. Psychological support for the development of leadership qualities of future officers: Methodological manual. Kyiv: Research and Development Center of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. 2014; 209.]).

The personality-oriented approach to training is revealed in the works of (K. Abulkhanova-Slavska, G. Ball, I. Bekh, S. Goncharenko, V. Davydov, I. Ziayun, V. Kraevskyi, V. Moliako, A. Petrovskyi, V. Rybalka, K. Rogers, O. Savchenko, etc.) However, when introducing a personality-oriented approach in the professional training of future officers of military management of the tactical level [2121Baranovska LV. Personality-oriented approach to the professional training of future officers of tactical level military command. Thesis for the degree of Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences in the specialty 13.00.04 - Theory and Methods of Vocational Education. Zhytomyr: Zhytomyr Ivan Franko State University. 2014; 22.], the development of leadership qualities of future officers was not in the field of view, since the subject of the study is the model and professional and pedagogical conditions for the introduction of a personality-oriented approach to the professional training of future management officers in the process of studying rubber

In order to diagnose the formation and development of cadets’ leadership qualities, the criteria and indicators of leadership qualities are substantiated. They are grouped on the basis of an expert study of the opinion of officers (150 experts with different lengths of service), and ranked by the level of importance of the officer’s leadership qualities [33Kokun OM. Psychological structure of leadership qualities of the future officer. Bulletin of the National Defense University of Ukraine. 2012; 4 (29): 170-174.]. These qualities (indicators) include sociability (84%), purposefulness (82%), responsibility (79%), perseverance (74%), motivation to succeed (73%), balance (65%), prudence (63%), compromise (57%), empathy (49%), positive self-esteem (47%), self-confidence (43%), sincerity (41%), determination (40%), developed intuition (35%), sensitivity (32%), risk-taking (innovation) (28%), and criticality of self and others (26%).

The following set of values, qualities, and skills of a future officer as a leader is defined: patriotism, loyalty, respect, reliability, obligation, responsibility, dedication, perseverance, courage, determination, honesty, decency, personal motivation, competence, corporate identity (commitment to the officer’s profession), sociability, flexibility of behavior, intelligence, erudition, spirituality, high level of culture and etiquette, professionalism (consists of the development of some types of cadet’s thinking that can be conditionally called critical, creative, adequate, ethical thinking based on his military-specialized knowledge, skills and abilities, psychological and pedagogical competence, humanistic orientation, psychological and pedagogical abilities, technical competence - knowledge of weapons and military equipment and the ability to use it, tactical competence - knowledge and ability to manage combat.

Stage 3: Generalization - to formulate conclusions and recommendations on the feasibility of further research.

Stage 4: The method of analytical and comparative analysis - in assessing the level of scientific novelty of the research result.

Reliability and accuracy of results

The reliability of the research results is ensured by the correctness, logic, and consistency of the use of scientific research methods; a reasonable choice of basic assumptions and limitations taken as a starting point in the formulation of partial scientific tasks; use of modern, proven scientific and methodological (mathematical) apparatus, correct selection of the general and partial indicators of the criteria used, as well as the model used.

The reliability and validity of the conclusions and recommendations are confirmed by the results of modeling pedagogical phenomena and processes; and the results of the proposed psychological, pedagogical, and organizational solutions; the results have a clear scientific interpretation and do not contradict known (published) data.

Limitations in the application of the results

It is important to eliminate any potential biases due to the focus on the Ukrainian context, which will provide a more balanced view of the problem. Therefore, the use of the results in other countries may be considered as one of the possible options at the stage of preliminary analysis.

Terms and definitions

Leadership is a social phenomenon that contributes to the achievement of group goals at the optimal time and with the greatest effect. It is the ability to influence the behavior of individuals or organizations with values and character traits that meet the goals, and external and internal needs of the social group as a whole.

Military leadership is the purposeful influence of military personnel of various categories in everyday, service, training, and combat activities, as well as in disorderly (non-standard, critical) situations on the personnel by maintaining trust and respect, setting goals, directing them to achieve them, ensuring discipline and motivation to perform assigned tasks and improving the Armed Forces of Ukraine as a social institution.

Results and discussion

The study of the characteristics of the cadet and the educational team is carried out in compliance with a number of pedagogical conditions [2222Saienko OH, Kozubtsov IM, Stupenkov SO, Lohvinenko NM. Military Pedagogy and Psychology (including Leadership): navchalnyi posibnyk. Kyiv: Heroes of Kruty Military Institute of Telecommunications and Informatization. 2023.], the main of which are subordination of the learning process of the personality of the student and the military team to improving the quality of training and education; improving the management of their educational, cognitive, and service activities; studying should be consistent, systematic, and purposeful in all types of cadets’ activities, during days and hours of rest, in the military university and beyond; it is necessary to study both the individual personality traits of the cadet and his/her personality as a whole, and the educational team as a single, cohesive, purposeful, and developing organism.

During the period of studying at a military educational institution, significant changes occur in the system of interpersonal relations of cadets. The formation of the primary military team is usually completed during the first year of study. Relationships between cadets become established and stable. This process is undoubtedly influenced by the stability of an individual’s stay in the same study group. The same cadets share military service, life, and leisure time. All of this, together with isolation from family, relatives, and friends, creates the prerequisites for the constant influence of the team on the formation of the individual.

At this stage, the requirements for a personality as a future officer usually change. If during the selection period for the HMEIs and the first months of study, the most important in the cadets’ collective knowledge is the knowledge of the specifics of military service, in the second year it gives way to general erudition, scientific and technical outlook, learning abilities, reasonable initiative, and individual leadership. Self-affirmation in this situation serves as one of the most important social and psychological stimuli for personal development. It encourages active self-assessment, setting specific self-improvement goals, and striving to fulfill them. The cadets’ motives for self-affirmation include achieving high results in studies, sports, and camaraderie.

All of this creates favorable objective and subjective prerequisites for the inclusion of cadets in the active educational process and service with positive consideration of the specifics of the HMEIs. At the same time, in the process of organizing educational work and service activities, it is important to find the optimal combination of collective and individual forms of work for cadets, both in the classroom and in extracurricular time [2323Kozubtsov I, Stupenkov S, Skydan R, Manzia Ye. Prospects for the use of blended learning in the system of military education in wartime. The II International Scientific and Practical Conference "Education, Law, and Public Administration - New Development Trends" "ELPA-NDT". 2023; 65-69.]. So that each of them has the opportunity to fully demonstrate their leadership skills and develop the qualities that will be necessary for them in the performance of military and professional duties in the future.

The period of stabilization, which is usually characteristic of the third and fourth years of study, is important in the formation of a cadet’s leadership personality. It is characterized by a general rise in the tone of cadets’ lives and stabilization of interest in learning and military service. This period is manifested in overcoming difficulties, strengthening the acquired professional competencies, their qualified application in various forms of educational work, and objective self-assessment of the accumulated experience of study and service. It is during this period that professional leadership courses are rational.

The instructor should patiently but reasonably assist cadets in overcoming difficulties and mistakes, and intensify self-education. Military internships, practice, and tactical exercises play an important role in solving these problems, as they are a real school for testing the military and professional readiness of each cadet [2424Kaplia A.M.The role of the teacher-mentor in the process of socialization of cadets of higher educational institutions of the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine. Bulletin of Luhansk Taras Shevchenko National Pedagogical University. Series of Pedagogical Sciences. 2006; 6(123): 127-131.].

Intensive training, and deep mastery of the system of knowledge, skills, and abilities related to future professional activities - this is what primarily defines this period. In the III-IV years of study, the importance of cadets’ independent work, which is searching and research-based and characterized by the ability to master the material independently, increases significantly. During this period, it is rational to involve cadets in research work carried out at the departments within the framework of the cadets’ research work.

Analyzing the ways of developing independent, productive thinking, forming methods of search and creative activity, military pedagogy emphasizes that in the senior years of study, for the most part, educational work with cadets should be built as an independent search for unreported aspects of the problem [2525Zamotaieva N.V.Military pedagogy: history, theory, practice: navch. posib. Kyiv: Alfa Reklama. 2021.]. Equipping cadets with active forms of self-education will greatly contribute to the improvement of their cognitive activity, the development of research competencies, and the ability to navigate a huge flow of information.

Teachers’ management of cadets’ self-directed learning is combined with their self-control and self-organization, which together contribute to the formation of cadets’ creative abilities and will allow them to develop the necessary soft skills required in their future professional activities.

In the scientific, pedagogical, and psychological literature [2626Kokun O. Psychological structure of leadership qualities of the future officer. Bulletin of the National Defense University of Ukraine. 2012; 4 (29): 170-174.], leadership abilities are understood as personality traits that determine not only the success of mastering military professional competencies but also the solution of problematic tasks and situations in a new optimal way.

Leadership qualities are the personal qualities that ensure effective leadership - individual-personal and socio-psychological characteristics of a personality that influence a group and lead to the achievement of a goal. However, as numerous studies have shown, there is no “universal” set of leadership qualities for all cases [2626Kokun O. Psychological structure of leadership qualities of the future officer. Bulletin of the National Defense University of Ukraine. 2012; 4 (29): 170-174.].

On the basis of an informal questionnaire survey of graduate cadets and teachers, we identified the main reasons that impede the development of cadets’ creative abilities, which are listed in Table 1 in ranked order.

Table 1: The main reasons that hinder the development of cadets' leadership skills.

The analysis of the table shows the validity of the main reasons that impede the development of cadets’ creative abilities, as teachers and cadets have indicated many of the same reasons. The passivity of a certain part of the teaching staff, whose personal exemplar in creativity is exceptionally high, is particularly worrying.

At the same time, the vast majority of teachers and commanders of cadet units work actively and creatively.

Long-term research in this area has allowed us to identify the following main forms of work of officers: conducting training sessions using an active, intensive methodology with the use of various technical means of training;

☑   Setting and solving problematic tasks and situations;

☑   Conducting various types of professional business games;

☑   Conducting brainstorming sessions;

☑   Supervision of scientific and creative works of cadets, study, and generalization of their patent search, rationalization, and inventive work; conducting experimental research;

☑   Management of military scientific clubs;

☑   Creation of a scientific, cultural, and sports center in a military university, which includes various creative clubs and sports sections; theater and poetry clubs.

☑   In all forms of work, an indispensable condition for success is:

☑   Providing cadets with greater independence and freedom in creative manifestations;

☑   Comprehensive support and positive evaluation of reasonable initiative and creativity of cadets;

☑   Strengthening the stimulation of creative work; study, generalization, and implementation of best practices in creative activity.

Let us consider how to strengthen the need to develop a cadet’s leadership personality in the course of cadet training on the example of the Department of Combat Use of Communication Units.

The concept of the development of the HMEIs of Ukraine [1515Viter D, Oliferuk V. The concept of development of the military education system of Ukraine. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44): 29-42.] envisaged in the new model of training in higher education institutions [1616Rusnak I, Mirnenko V, Kas’ianenko M, Oliferuk V, Viter D. Innovative military education: state and prospects of development. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44): 9-20.] the courses of professional military education L-1B (tactical level of military education) [2727What is professional military education? Ofitsiinyi sait Ministerstvo oborony Ukrainy, https://www.mil.gov.ua/diyalnist/vijskova-osvita-na-tauka/shho-take-profesijna-vijskova-osvita.html.].

During higher education under the educational and professional bachelor’s degree program in higher education institutions in various specialties, including the so-called civilian fields of knowledge, the L-1B tactical level professional military education courses prepare individuals for military service as junior officers.

The professional course of tactical level of professional military education (L-1B) prepares persons for primary officer positions in the relevant military specialty (group of military specialties) according to the procedures of planning and military decision-making. Such training allows the graduate to hold the primary positions of platoon commander and deputy company commander.

The main driver of the process of mastering knowledge is its practical application. Often, cadets experience serious difficulties in the practical application of knowledge. It is important to teach cadets how to apply knowledge in practice, and to develop techniques for combining mental and practical actions. To do this, it is necessary to create conditions for cadets to be convinced in the course of classes at the tactical level of professional military education (L-1B), for example, in the discipline “Combat use of military communication systems and complexes” that the theoretical knowledge obtained at technical departments is the basis of their practical activities and to provide specific material for the conscious assimilation of theoretical knowledge, which is a prerequisite for mastering it. The involvement of cadets in learning activities follows the idea of [2828Kozubtsova LM, Kozubtsov IM, Lishchyna VO, Shtanenko SS. Concept of the training complex for training military information and cybersecurity specialists based on a computer game (gamification). Cybersecurity: education, science, technology. 2022; 2:18; 49-60.] based on the methodology of teaching a business professional game “cadets performing duties in the relevant officer position” [2929Ponomarov OA, Pyvovarchuk SA, Kozubtsov IM. On the use of the computer game "Become the Head of the Field Information and Communication Hub" in the study of tactical and special disciplines. Collection of reports and abstracts of the materials of the II International Scientific and Technical Conference "Systems and Technologies of Communication, Informatization and Cybersecurity: Topical Issues and Development Trends".Kyiv: Heroes of Kruty Military Institute of Telecommunications and Informatization. 2022; 174-175.]. The instructor acts as a mentor-director and creates typical and atypical (force majeure) learning tasks for cadets from the daily activities of an officer. Such training activities help enrich their social and moral experience and foster a sense of high responsibility, which helps cadets to properly combine public and personal interests and forms the basis for discipline, activity, and leadership initiative.

This is also important because, in the senior years of study, the requirements for the individual imposed by the team emphasize social activity and the degree of dedication to the common cause.

Development (training) of cadets’ leadership skills. The leadership development training program should be built as a semi-standardized program, which allows for a more flexible response to changes in the situation during group work and adaptation to the characteristics of different groups.

Training objective: to develop leadership skills of future officers.

Training objectives:

1) Mastering the knowledge of the essence of leadership qualities and the peculiarities of their manifestation by the training participants;

2) To determine the level of development of their own leadership qualities by means of diagnostic methods;

3) Development of leadership qualities of the training participants.

Here is an indicative plan of positions (roles) during a professional business game in the course of the discipline: Combat use of military communication systems and complexes of the professional military education course (professional course of tactical level L1B). The formalized form is presented in Table 2. In the extracurricular time, cadets are encouraged to master the duties of officers.

Table 2: Formalized job description for tactical command officers.

The teacher turns into a mentor-director, creating typical learning tasks for cadets. Such educational activities help enrich their social and moral experience and foster a sense of high responsibility, which helps cadets to properly combine public and personal interests and forms the basis for discipline, activity, and leadership initiative.

Undoubtedly, the new model of officer training also requires higher requirements for academic staff. Teachers at HMEIs are not formal performers. At each lesson, they should see not just an ordinary cadet, but a specific future officer.

Modern teachers of HMEIs are role models for cadets who will become such in the future [3030Kozubtsov IM, Kozubtsova LM, Khlaponin YuI. Modern theory and practice of training of higher education applicants for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in higher military educational institutions on the basis of methodological culture. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2022; 1(45); 102-111.].

Teachers should treat each cadet with respect and never raise their voices. Raising your voice and insulting cadets is a clear indication of personal disrespect and moral weakness of the teacher. Such teachers do not meet the requirements of the model of modernized HMEIs [3131Didenko O.V., Kozubtsov I.M.Modernized model of professional training of officers of the security and defense sector based on the needs of combat practice. Collection of reports and abstracts of the materials of the II International Scientific and Technical Conference "Systems and Technologies of Communication, Informatization, and Cybersecurity: Topical Issues and Development Trends".Kyiv: Heroes of Kruty Military Institute of Telecommunications and Informatization. 2022; 93.].

Recently, the process of rejuvenation of the academic staff has been taking place in the military academies, due to a significant reduction in the requirements for candidates for vacant academic positions with a fictitious priority for officers with war experience.

First, all officers with war experience must undergo advanced training through adjunct positions or refresher courses on methodological skills before starting teaching.

Secondly, a system of organizing classes for such novice teachers should be created, which includes a comprehensive program of professional development.

Thirdly, organizational and methodological guidelines for training novice teachers should be developed, the topics of classes with them in HMEIs be approved, and annual meetings at the beginning and end of the academic year should be planned for their formation period (up to two years).

Among the defined tasks, the professional and motivational selection of officers as candidates for teaching and their professional development through postgraduate studies remains dominant [3232Kozubtsova L.M., Kozubtsov I.M., Saienko O.H., Shatsilo P.V.Personalized model of advanced training of scientific and scientific-pedagogical workers of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2022; 2(46); 127-137.].

In order to encourage teachers to work on themselves, it is necessary to periodically practice the assessment of their scientific and pedagogical activities and personal qualities. In order to improve their methodological skills, it is planned to create an educational and methodological complex in HMEIs, which would include a methodological room, and a lecturing room, which would provide practical assistance to teachers in mastering new pedagogical technologies of teaching and upbringing.

The whole complex of these requirements contributes to strengthening the role of professional training of security and defense sector officers for management activities through a high-quality system of teaching by scientific and pedagogical personnel.

As can be clearly seen from Table 3 the following learning methods are the most accepted for the formation of knowledge: didactic games; practical training; teaching others (mutual learning) and independent work [2828Kozubtsova LM, Kozubtsov IM, Lishchyna VO, Shtanenko SS. Concept of the training complex for training military information and cybersecurity specialists based on a computer game (gamification). Cybersecurity: education, science, technology. 2022; 2:18; 49-60.].

Table 3: Comparative characteristics of different teaching methods.

Assessment and feedback mechanisms are essential components of effective teaching in higher education and are continuously monitored [].

Independent work is the main means of mastering educational material in the time free from standardized educational classes, that is, lectures and practical classes (auditory work). During independent work, students should pay attention to work on processing and studying the recommended literature; preparation for discussions and other tasks proposed by the teacher; work on an abstract individual research project, etc.

Thus, the department’s innovation should be “interesting and easy to learn - professional and easy in modern hybrid combat!” [3434Nesterov O.M., Kozubtsov I.M., Olshanskyi V.V., Filippov V.V.Conceptual view of the Department of Combat Use of Communication Units on the Training of Military Specialists on the Basis of Leadership Professional and Business Game. Systems and Technologies of Communication, Informatization and Cybersecurity: Topical Issues and Development Trends: Proceedings of the III International Scientific and Technical Conference.Kyiv: Heroes of Kruty Military Institute of Telecommunications and Informatization. 2023; 356-357.].

Diagnostic apparatus. So, based on [33Kokun OM. Psychological structure of leadership qualities of the future officer. Bulletin of the National Defense University of Ukraine. 2012; 4 (29): 170-174.], we have identified the need for officers to have leadership qualities, and approaches to determining the list of leadership qualities of a personality, and we will distinguish 5 components (criteria) and indicators, Table 4.

Table 4: Psychological structure of leadership qualities of a future officer.

It should be noted that the general structure of the leadership qualities of a future officer must also include a professional component, which was not included in the psychological structure we have defined because its content goes beyond the possibilities of diagnosis and development by psychological means.

Scientific novelty of the work

The educational process of training and development of a cadet leader in professional training courses (L-1B) of the tactical level of military education has been improved by reformatting group classes in the traditional format into a professional business game for the positions of officers with the introduction of typical and atypical (force majeure) educational tasks for cadets on everyday activities in new or unfamiliar environments in the presence of incomplete or limited information. The new scientific result obtained in the work expands the scientific boundaries of pedagogical sciences in the field of education, namely in the development of a methodology for the teacher’s work in the implementation of the process of forming a cadet leader of the tactical level of military education in professional training courses (L-1B) in a hybrid war. This expansion takes place in the unity of the philosophy of education and the theory and methodology of vocational education.

Prospects for further research

The theoretical results obtained in the process of scientific research form the basis for further study, and the results can be used to improve the methodology of teaching cadets through professional business games.

Thus, it is advisable to organize a scientific and pedagogical experiment in a professional course of the tactical level of professional military education (L-1B), in the discipline “Combat use of military communication systems and complexes” on the basis of leadership in education (joint activities of teachers and cadets) instead of the traditional form of organizing group classes. The cadet should feel that he is a future officer, and training is a way to turn the acquired theoretical knowledge into primary practical experience. The department’s innovation should be “interesting and easy to learn - professional and easy in modern hybrid combat”!

The methodological basis for further research is the approach proposed by the author [3535Zelnytskyi A. Feedback as a component of change management in the military education system. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2(44); 82-90.] to the formation of feedback on the level of graduate professional competencies and professionally important qualities based on the results of his/her service in the troops (forces) in the form of a review. This is due to the requirements for the model of the system of collecting and processing information on assessing the quality of military education [3636Levytska L. Requirements for a model of a system for collecting and processing information on assessing the quality of military education. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44); 115-120.], which is correct to consider for the level of leadership skills. The technological aspects of building a system for collecting and processing information on assessing the quality of education of graduates of higher education institutions based on the results of their service are defined in [3737Orda M, Fedchuk S, Myhun M. Technological aspects of building a system for collecting and processing information on assessing the quality of education of graduates of higher education institutions. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44); 167-181.], and the features of its use in assessing the quality of military education in the NATO armed forces in [3838Poltorak MF. Features of the use of systems for collecting and processing educational information on assessing the quality of military education in the Armed Forces of Ukraine and NATO: a comparative analysis. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; (43); 254-266.].

Practical aspects of implementation

The practical aspects of implementation are to develop a teaching methodology for a professional course at the tactical level of professional military education (L-1B), which is based on the transition from teacher-centered to student-centered learning.

The success of instructors and the achievement of good learning outcomes by cadets depend on the quality of cadet engagement in the discipline being taught. This involvement can be superficial, also called the “surface approach”. With this approach, the cadet receives partial knowledge from the information provided by the teacher, making minimal effort to obtain a positive assessment of his knowledge. A successful officer-leader is one who can apply theoretical knowledge to practical problems in organizing the combat use of communication units. It is these abilities that not only the instructor but primarily the customer wants to see. This approach to training requires high-quality, structured learning outcomes. It is called the “deep approach and it gives students a sense of satisfaction from learning and a deep understanding of the discipline. The choice of the teaching approach by the teacher depends on the understanding of the content.

Conclusion

Leadership skills are the personal qualities that ensure effective leadership. However, there is no “universal” set of leadership qualities. The success of a group member’s development as a leader depends on his or her ability to demonstrate the necessary qualities (including skills) in appropriate situations.

Specific features and requirements of military activities necessitate the purposeful development of leadership qualities in future officers, starting from the period of their training in a higher military educational institution. In the process of military professional selection of cadets, it is necessary to take into account the need for personal qualities that are a prerequisite for the formation of such qualities.

The developed psychological structure of leadership qualities of a future officer consists of 5 components:

1)   Communicative and organizational (sociability, persuasiveness, tact, diplomacy, empathy, flexibility, developed speech and organizational skills);

2)  Emotional and volitional (purposefulness, perseverance, determination, self-confidence, demandingness, self-control, stress tolerance);

3)  Motivational (motivation for leadership and success);

4)  Mental (speed of thinking, logic, creativity, insight, ability to predict and generalize, criticality, prudence);

5)  Personal (activity, initiative, obligation, reliability, responsibility, sense of humor, optimism, honesty, patriotism, desire for self-improvement).

Thus, the expansion of cadets’ general education and military professional knowledge, development of their creative abilities and enrichment of work experience, and transition to a higher level of organizational skills create favorable conditions for teachers of higher military educational institutions to further form the military professional orientation of the cadet leader’s personality, to foster in him/her the will to constantly improve existing knowledge and form competencies, to self-education, and to develop character traits. Great expectations in promoting the development of the cadet as a leader are placed on the courses of professional military education L-1B (tactical level of military education).

Acknowledgment

The author would like to express her gratitude for the financial support provided by the scientific journal for free printing as an intention of a civilized society to support researchers from Ukraine who bravely continue their research despite the war. Sincere thanks to the editorial board.

Declaration of interest: The author declares that he has no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could influence the work presented in this article.

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  22. Saienko OH, Kozubtsov IM, Stupenkov SO, Lohvinenko NM. Military Pedagogy and Psychology (including Leadership): navchalnyi posibnyk. Kyiv: Heroes of Kruty Military Institute of Telecommunications and Informatization. 2023.

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  25. Zamotaieva N.V.Military pedagogy: history, theory, practice: navch. posib. Kyiv: Alfa Reklama. 2021.

  26. Kokun O. Psychological structure of leadership qualities of the future officer. Bulletin of the National Defense University of Ukraine. 2012; 4 (29): 170-174.

  27. What is professional military education? Ofitsiinyi sait Ministerstvo oborony Ukrainy, https://www.mil.gov.ua/diyalnist/vijskova-osvita-na-tauka/shho-take-profesijna-vijskova-osvita.html.

  28. Kozubtsova LM, Kozubtsov IM, Lishchyna VO, Shtanenko SS. Concept of the training complex for training military information and cybersecurity specialists based on a computer game (gamification). Cybersecurity: education, science, technology. 2022; 2:18; 49-60.

  29. Ponomarov OA, Pyvovarchuk SA, Kozubtsov IM. On the use of the computer game "Become the Head of the Field Information and Communication Hub" in the study of tactical and special disciplines. Collection of reports and abstracts of the materials of the II International Scientific and Technical Conference "Systems and Technologies of Communication, Informatization and Cybersecurity: Topical Issues and Development Trends".Kyiv: Heroes of Kruty Military Institute of Telecommunications and Informatization. 2022; 174-175.

  30. Kozubtsov IM, Kozubtsova LM, Khlaponin YuI. Modern theory and practice of training of higher education applicants for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in higher military educational institutions on the basis of methodological culture. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2022; 1(45); 102-111.

  31. Didenko O.V., Kozubtsov I.M.Modernized model of professional training of officers of the security and defense sector based on the needs of combat practice. Collection of reports and abstracts of the materials of the II International Scientific and Technical Conference "Systems and Technologies of Communication, Informatization, and Cybersecurity: Topical Issues and Development Trends".Kyiv: Heroes of Kruty Military Institute of Telecommunications and Informatization. 2022; 93.

  32. Kozubtsova L.M., Kozubtsov I.M., Saienko O.H., Shatsilo P.V.Personalized model of advanced training of scientific and scientific-pedagogical workers of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2022; 2(46); 127-137.

  33. Rigopoulos G. Assessment and Feedback as Predictors for Student Satisfaction in UK Higher Education. International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science (IJMECS). 2022; 14:5;1-9.

  34. Nesterov O.M., Kozubtsov I.M., Olshanskyi V.V., Filippov V.V.Conceptual view of the Department of Combat Use of Communication Units on the Training of Military Specialists on the Basis of Leadership Professional and Business Game. Systems and Technologies of Communication, Informatization and Cybersecurity: Topical Issues and Development Trends: Proceedings of the III International Scientific and Technical Conference.Kyiv: Heroes of Kruty Military Institute of Telecommunications and Informatization. 2023; 356-357.

  35. Zelnytskyi A. Feedback as a component of change management in the military education system. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2(44); 82-90.

  36. Levytska L. Requirements for a model of a system for collecting and processing information on assessing the quality of military education. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44); 115-120.

  37. Orda M, Fedchuk S, Myhun M. Technological aspects of building a system for collecting and processing information on assessing the quality of education of graduates of higher education institutions. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44); 167-181.

  38. Poltorak MF. Features of the use of systems for collecting and processing educational information on assessing the quality of military education in the Armed Forces of Ukraine and NATO: a comparative analysis. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; (43); 254-266.

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Cite this Article

Kozubtsov I. Methodology of the Professional-Business Game for the Development of a Cadet Leader in Professional Training Courses (L-1B) of the Tactical Level of Military Education. IgMin Res. 27 Dec, 2023;1(2):160-169. IgMin ID:igmin132; DOI:10.61927/igmin132; Available at:www.igminresearch.com/articles/pdf/igmin132.pdf

  • Received
    07 Dec 2023

  • Accepted
    26 Dec 2023

  • Published
    27 Dec 2023

DOI10.61927/igmin132

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Topics
  1. Kozubtsov I. Problems of failure of the existing model of personnel management of the armed forces of Ukraine in the conditions of external military aggression. The 1st International Scientific and Practical Conference "Law and Public Administration – New Development Trends" «LPA–NDT». 2022; 22-24.

  2. Ostapchuk VM. Choosing a military profession by modern youth: a conscious decision or an accident? Society. State. Army. Collection of scientific papers (Humanities and socio-economic sciences). 2022; 26; 4-7.

  3. Kokun OM. Psychological structure of leadership qualities of the future officer. Bulletin of the National Defense University of Ukraine. 2012; 4 (29): 170-174.

  4. VKP 7-00(03).01. Doctrine of Military Leadership Development in the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Kyiv: Main Department of Doctrine and Training of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Center for Operational Standards and Methods of Training of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, 2020; 27.

  5. Telelym VM, Prykhodko YI. State and trends in the development of military education in the leading countries of the world in the context of their defense capabilities. Collection of scientific works of the Military Institute of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. 2012;36: 6-17.

  6. Telelym VM, Prykhodko YI. Training of military specialists in the context of modern forms and types of armed struggle. Collection of scientific works of the Military Institute of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. 2013; 42: 198-210.

  7. Telelym VM, Prykhodko I. Military education in the system of security and defense of the state. Science and Defense. 2013; 4: 21-28.

  8. Punda Yu. Education is the main investment in the development of human capital in the security and defense sector of Ukraine. Science and Defense. 2018; 1: 34-40.

  9. Zabolotnyi O, Zelnytskyi A, Oliferuk V, Shabatina N. Personnel Potential of the Armed Forces and the Quality of Higher Military Education: Analysis of Concepts and System of Relations. Collection of scientific works "Military Education". 2018; 2 (38): 92-103.

  10. Syrotenko AM, Bohunov SO, Prykhodko YuI. Innovations in the system of training military specialists with higher education: concept, essence, focus. Science and Defense. 2018; 3: 38-46.

  11. Tyurin VV, Saliy AG, Kasyanenko MV, Openko PV, Martyniuk OR. Substantiation of the model of training of Air Force specialists in modern conditions. Science and Defense. 2019; 9 (4): 20-26.

  12. Viter D, Mitiahin O. Professionalization of military education in Ukraine: main directions, content and prospects. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2020; 1(41): 81-90.

  13. Oliferuk V, Viter D, Shabatina N. Modeling the process of military education development in Ukraine: principles and approaches to standardization. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2020; 2(42): 223-229.

  14. Viter D, Mitiahin O. Strategic priorities for improving the combat capability of the Armed Forces of Ukraine in the context of professionalization of military education: policies and procedures. Collection of scientific works of the CISS. 2020; 1(68): 133-137.

  15. Viter D, Oliferuk V. The concept of development of the military education system of Ukraine. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44): 29-42.

  16. Rusnak I, Mirnenko V, Kas’ianenko M, Oliferuk V, Viter D. Innovative military education: state and prospects of development. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44): 9-20.

  17. Mityagin O.Education and Individual Training in NATO Countries. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44): 131-143.

  18. Bohunov S, Chernykh O, Chernykh Yu. Organization of Officer Training for the Armed Forces of the Republic of Latvia. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2019; 1(39): 29-42.

  19. Mitiahin O. Education and individual training in NATO countries. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44): 131-143.

  20. Agayev NA, Kokun OM, Pishko IO, Lozinska NS, Gerasimenko MV, Tkachenko VV. Psychological support for the development of leadership qualities of future officers: Methodological manual. Kyiv: Research and Development Center of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. 2014; 209.

  21. Baranovska LV. Personality-oriented approach to the professional training of future officers of tactical level military command. Thesis for the degree of Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences in the specialty 13.00.04 - Theory and Methods of Vocational Education. Zhytomyr: Zhytomyr Ivan Franko State University. 2014; 22.

  22. Saienko OH, Kozubtsov IM, Stupenkov SO, Lohvinenko NM. Military Pedagogy and Psychology (including Leadership): navchalnyi posibnyk. Kyiv: Heroes of Kruty Military Institute of Telecommunications and Informatization. 2023.

  23. Kozubtsov I, Stupenkov S, Skydan R, Manzia Ye. Prospects for the use of blended learning in the system of military education in wartime. The II International Scientific and Practical Conference "Education, Law, and Public Administration - New Development Trends" "ELPA-NDT". 2023; 65-69.

  24. Kaplia A.M.The role of the teacher-mentor in the process of socialization of cadets of higher educational institutions of the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine. Bulletin of Luhansk Taras Shevchenko National Pedagogical University. Series of Pedagogical Sciences. 2006; 6(123): 127-131.

  25. Zamotaieva N.V.Military pedagogy: history, theory, practice: navch. posib. Kyiv: Alfa Reklama. 2021.

  26. Kokun O. Psychological structure of leadership qualities of the future officer. Bulletin of the National Defense University of Ukraine. 2012; 4 (29): 170-174.

  27. What is professional military education? Ofitsiinyi sait Ministerstvo oborony Ukrainy, https://www.mil.gov.ua/diyalnist/vijskova-osvita-na-tauka/shho-take-profesijna-vijskova-osvita.html.

  28. Kozubtsova LM, Kozubtsov IM, Lishchyna VO, Shtanenko SS. Concept of the training complex for training military information and cybersecurity specialists based on a computer game (gamification). Cybersecurity: education, science, technology. 2022; 2:18; 49-60.

  29. Ponomarov OA, Pyvovarchuk SA, Kozubtsov IM. On the use of the computer game "Become the Head of the Field Information and Communication Hub" in the study of tactical and special disciplines. Collection of reports and abstracts of the materials of the II International Scientific and Technical Conference "Systems and Technologies of Communication, Informatization and Cybersecurity: Topical Issues and Development Trends".Kyiv: Heroes of Kruty Military Institute of Telecommunications and Informatization. 2022; 174-175.

  30. Kozubtsov IM, Kozubtsova LM, Khlaponin YuI. Modern theory and practice of training of higher education applicants for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in higher military educational institutions on the basis of methodological culture. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2022; 1(45); 102-111.

  31. Didenko O.V., Kozubtsov I.M.Modernized model of professional training of officers of the security and defense sector based on the needs of combat practice. Collection of reports and abstracts of the materials of the II International Scientific and Technical Conference "Systems and Technologies of Communication, Informatization, and Cybersecurity: Topical Issues and Development Trends".Kyiv: Heroes of Kruty Military Institute of Telecommunications and Informatization. 2022; 93.

  32. Kozubtsova L.M., Kozubtsov I.M., Saienko O.H., Shatsilo P.V.Personalized model of advanced training of scientific and scientific-pedagogical workers of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2022; 2(46); 127-137.

  33. Rigopoulos G. Assessment and Feedback as Predictors for Student Satisfaction in UK Higher Education. International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science (IJMECS). 2022; 14:5;1-9.

  34. Nesterov O.M., Kozubtsov I.M., Olshanskyi V.V., Filippov V.V.Conceptual view of the Department of Combat Use of Communication Units on the Training of Military Specialists on the Basis of Leadership Professional and Business Game. Systems and Technologies of Communication, Informatization and Cybersecurity: Topical Issues and Development Trends: Proceedings of the III International Scientific and Technical Conference.Kyiv: Heroes of Kruty Military Institute of Telecommunications and Informatization. 2023; 356-357.

  35. Zelnytskyi A. Feedback as a component of change management in the military education system. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2(44); 82-90.

  36. Levytska L. Requirements for a model of a system for collecting and processing information on assessing the quality of military education. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44); 115-120.

  37. Orda M, Fedchuk S, Myhun M. Technological aspects of building a system for collecting and processing information on assessing the quality of education of graduates of higher education institutions. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; 2 (44); 167-181.

  38. Poltorak MF. Features of the use of systems for collecting and processing educational information on assessing the quality of military education in the Armed Forces of Ukraine and NATO: a comparative analysis. Collection of scientific papers "Military Education". 2021; (43); 254-266.

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