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Research Article Article ID: igmin171

Contribution to the Knowledge of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Pakistan

Zubair Ahmed 1 ,
Haseeb Ahmed Lalika 2 ,
Imran Khatri 3 and
Eric Kirschenhofer 4 *

Received 26 Mar 2024 Accepted 16 Apr 2024 Published online 17 Apr 2024

Abstract

The present study is based on the examination of specimens housed in different museums and collections, including those of Lianghong Bin (China), Bernd Jaeger (Germany), Saeed Azadbakhsh (Iran), Alexander Anichtchenko (Latvia), Martin Hackel (Czech Republic), Ron Felix (Germany), and the first author (ZACP). A preliminary survey was randomly conducted in various areas of Pakistan from 2016 to 2023. A precise investigation revealed 17 subspecies and 36 species within 31 genera, distributed across 12 subfamilies in the family Carabidae. This survey also documented twenty-three new records for the country, expanding our understanding of their distribution. All determinations presented here are confirmed and validated by Löbl & Löbl (2017). Subfamily Harpalinae tribe Anthiini with 02 species Anthia (Anthia) sexguttata mannerheimii, A. (A.) sexguttata sexguttata Brachininae with 03 species Brachinus (Aploa) nobilis Pheropsophus (Stenaptinus) catoirei, P. (S.) lissoderus, P. stenoderus. Subfamily Broscinae with 01 species Broscus punctatus. Subfamily Carabinae with 07 species Carabus (Imaibius) caschmirensis fortetuberculatus, C. (I.) wittmerorum, Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum andrewesi, C. (C.) maderae indicum, C. (C.) imbricatum imbricatum, C. Calosoma (Compalita) Olivieri, C. (Calosoma) scabrosum roeschkei. Subfamily Dryptinae, Dryptini with 01 species Drypta (Drypta) lineola virgata, tribe Galeritini with 04 species records Planetes bimaculatus, Zuphium (Zuphium) olens olens, Galerita indica, Ophionea (Ophionea) indica. Subfamily Harpalinae with 03 species Idiomelas fulvipes indus, Metacolopodes buchanani, Microlestes discoidalis, tribe Chlaeniini with 12 species Chlaenius (Amblygenius) atripes, C. (A.) bengalensis, C. (A.) cookie, C. (A.) Chlaenius (Amblygenius) quadricolor orientalis, C. (Pachydinodes) hamifer, C. (P.) pictus, C. (P.) posticus, C. pretiosus, C. (Chlaenites) spoliatus spoliatus, Harpaglossus opacus, H. (Cryptophonus) tenebrosus, H. (Pseudophanus) meridianus, tribe Cyclosomini with 03 species records, Masoreus (Masoreus) orientalis orientalis, Caphora afghani, Tetragonoderus (Tetragonoderus) lindemannae, tribe Licinini with 06 species record, Diplochiela (Diplocheila) laevigata, Glycia spencei, Eucolliuris fuscipennis, Platytarus faminii faminii, Syntomus lateralis lateralis,       Trichis maculata. Subfamily Melaeninae with 03 spies, Cymbionotum (Cymbionotum) striatum, C. Cymbionotum candidum, C. semelederi, tribe Panagaeini with 03 species Microschemus flavopilosus, M. arabicus, Craspedophorus elegans. Subfamily Harpalinae with 01 species Sphodrus leucopthalmus. Subfamily Scaritinae, Scaritini with 02 species Scarites (Scallophorites) guineensis, S. (Scarites) procerus eurytus, subfamily Siagoninae with 01 species Siagona dilutipes and subfamily Trechinae, Bembidiini with 01 species Bembidion (Notaphocampa) niloticum niloticum.

Introduction

The family Carabidae comprises thirty-two subfamilies with approximately 40,000 species, out of which 35,000 species have been described [11Lorenz W. Systematic list of extant Ground Beetles of the world. Tutzing, printed by the author. 1998; 502.,22Lorenz W. A systematic list of extant ground beetles of the world. Publish by the author, Tutzing, Germany. 2005.]. Ground beetles are always an important part of ecosystems as ecological indicators and have various effects on the predation of pests. They exhibit remarkable richness, and therefore, many studies have been conducted on the abundance and ecological aspects of these ground beetles in tropical regions. Andrewes [33Andrewes HE. The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Carabinae. 1929; 1:1-431.,44Andrewes HE. The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Harpalinae. 1935; 1I:1: 1-328.] listed many species from the Indian subcontinent, including Ceylon and Burma, but none from Pakistan. In India, some inventories were carried out with ecological notes [55Kumar P, Rajagopal D. Carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of Karnataka with their prey and ecological notes. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 1996; 9(4): 610-615.,66Thakare VG, Zade VS, Hedge VD. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of Melghat Tiger Reserve, Central India. Journal of New Biological Reports. 2013; 2(2): 173-176.]. Several taxonomic works have been conducted in the Palaearctic and Oriental regions [77Kataev BM, Jaeger B. A new species of Acupalpus from East Asia (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl. 1997; 73: 343-346.-2626Hackel M, Azadbakhsh S. Two new species of Microcosmodes Strand (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Panagaenini) from Oman and Iran. Zootaxa 4137. 2016; (4): 553-560.]. Jedlicka (1963) made a major contribution to the study of ground beetles from East Asia. Kirschenhofer and coworkers have made various attempts at systematics and synonymies of Chalaenini from the Oriental and African regions [2727Kirschenhofer E. Neue Chlaenius-Arten der Untergattungen Lissauchenius MACLEAY, 1825, Ocybatus LAFERTE, 1851 sowie 3 neue Synonyme in den Gattungen Chlaenius BONELLI, 1810 und Callistoides MOTSCHULSKY, 1865 aus der äthiopischen Region (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Entomofuana. Band 28. Heft. 2007; 19: 241-256.-3434Kirschenhofer E. Chlaeniini aus Mali 1. Teil: Genus Callistoides Motschulsky, 1865 und Paracallistoides Basilewsky, 1965 (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Mitt. internat. entomol. Ver. Band 41 Heft ¾: 2018; 79-84.].

The carabid fauna of Pakistan is poorly known. Hashmi and Tashfeen [3535Hashmi AA, Tashfeen A. Coleoptera of Pakistan. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology. 1992; 12:133-170.] listed 210 species of Carabidae from Pakistan, housed in four museums in Pakistan. However, this list has a 70% taxonomic error rate in systematic position and validity, with specimens retained in the museum. Additionally, the presence of these species in the museums, particularly those housed in the Karachi National Museum, is uncertain, as the absence of a curator casts doubt on their status. Notably, Pheropsophus sabrinus and Ph. sobrinus were listed separately, while in Ullah, et al. [3636Ullah M, Naeem M, Mahmood K, Rafi M. Faunistic studies of the tribe Brachinini (Carabidae: Coleoptera) from northern Pakistan. Zootaxa. 2017; 4232(2):173-184.], Ph. hilaris sobrinus is considered a valid subspecies. Recent studies have highlighted the biodiversity abundance, richness, and evenness of some species in Azad Kashmir [3737Rahim J, Khan MR, Nazir N. Systematic and abundance of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from District Poonch, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2013; 6(2): 24-29.,3838Rahim J, Khan MR, Ghaffar MA, Nazir N. Biodiversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from district Poonch, Azad Kashmir. Pakistan J.Zool. 2013; 45(5):1463-1467.]. Ahmed and Kabir [3737Rahim J, Khan MR, Nazir N. Systematic and abundance of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from District Poonch, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2013; 6(2): 24-29.] described Itamus castaneus as a new record for the country. Jaeger & Ahmed [3939Ahmed Z, Kabir T, Akhter MA. First record of Itamus castaneus Schmidt-Goebel, 1846 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Paussinae) for Pakistan. Arquivos Entomoloxicos. 2014; 12: 227-228.] conducted an inventory of the tribe Stenolophina from Pakistan, listing species with their current status and validity. Azadbakhsh and Rafi [4141Azadbakhsh S, Rafi MA. Checklist of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae). 2017.] listed 38 species of ground beetles from materials deposited in the National Insect Museum, Pakistan. Ullah, et al. [3636Ullah M, Naeem M, Mahmood K, Rafi M. Faunistic studies of the tribe Brachinini (Carabidae: Coleoptera) from northern Pakistan. Zootaxa. 2017; 4232(2):173-184.] reported ten species of the tribe Brachinini from northern Pakistan, with four species as new records for the country. They also proposed a new combination for one species. Ullah, et al. [4242Ullah M, Naeem M, Mahmood K, Garner B. Addition to the knowledge of tribe Chlaeniini Brull, 1834 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Pakistan. Zootaxa. 2022; 5115(4): 451-486.] studied Chlaeniini of Pakistan, listing 32 species, with 16 species reported for the first time from Pakistan.

All species were collected from various regions of Pakistan, especially the upper region of Sindh Province and the Thar Desert. These areas exhibit great diversity and abundance of ground beetles, particularly those attracted to light after rainfall. The upper part of Sindh Province features a vast expanse of agricultural fields, including maize, banana, and sugarcane, along with highways, resulting in a significant number of insects being obtained. Many more species of ground beetles are awaiting exploration in these areas.

Materials

The study materials were collected annually from various regions of Pakistan by different collectors, including the first author. The specimens were deposited in the Zoological Museum at Fuuast, Karachi, Pakistan, and the first author’s collection (ZACP). Identifications were carried out by various experts specializing in different groups of Carabidae, as mentioned in the acknowledgements. The present study is based on the examination of specimens housed in different museums and collections, including those of Lianghong Bin (China), Bernd Jaeger (Germany), Saeed Azadbakhsh (Iran), Alexander Anichtchenko (Latvia), Martin Hackel (Czech Republic), Ron Felix (Germany), and the first author (ZACP). All determinations were confirmed and validated by Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

Results and discussion

The study comprises 17 subspecies, and 36 species with 23 new records indicating that precisely searching all habitats can increase the biodiversity fauna of the country (Figure 1, Table 1).

Distributional map of Carabidae of Pakistan. (Numbers indicate species; refer to the name of each species in the Results section corresponding to the assigned number). Figure 1: Distributional map of Carabidae of Pakistan. (Numbers indicate species; refer to the name of each species in the Results section corresponding to the assigned number).
Table 1: Distributional map of Carabidae of Pakistan.

Family Carabidae Latreille 1802

Subfamily Harpalinae Bonelli, 1810

Anthiini Bonelli, 1813

  1. Anthia (Anthia) sexguttata mannerheimii Chaudoir, 1842 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Punjab Province, Rahim Yar Khan, Cholistan desert (coordinates: 28.336374, 70.737431), 13.vii.2011, leg; Zubair;

  1. Pakistan, Village Khar, Bajaur Agency (coordinates: 34.725434, 71.521869). 22.viii.2018, leg; Musa.

Remarks: This subspecies was reported from Iran and Turkmenistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.]. Hackel and Farkac [2424Hackel M, Farkac J. A checklist of the subfamily Anthiinae Bonelli, 1813 of the World (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Studies & Reports Taxonomical Series. 2013; 9(2): 261-366.] listed this subspecies from Iran, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

  1. Anthia (Anthia) sexguttata sexguttata (Fabricius, 1775)

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tharparkar, Mithrio Bhatti (coordinates: 24.763454, 69.892772).

Remarks: This subspecies was reported from Asia including Pakistan [2424Hackel M, Farkac J. A checklist of the subfamily Anthiinae Bonelli, 1813 of the World (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Studies & Reports Taxonomical Series. 2013; 9(2): 261-366.]. Hashmi and Tashfeen [3535Hashmi AA, Tashfeen A. Coleoptera of Pakistan. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology. 1992; 12:133-170.] listed this species from Pakistan.

Subfamily Brachininae Bonelli, 1810

  1. Brachinus (Aploa) nobilis Dejean, 1831 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Azad Kashmir, Kotli, Village Roli (coordinates: 33.505196, 73.906823).

Remarks: The species are distributed in North Africa and Asia. In Asia, the species are distributed in Iran, Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and Yemen [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Pheropsophus (Stenaptinus) catoirei Dejean 1825

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Gilgit-Baltistan (coordinates: 35.849087, 74.734673).

Remarks: Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.] listed from Pakistan.

  1. Pheropsophus (Stenaptinus) lissoderus Chaudoir, 1850

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Kotli, Azad Kashmir, Damol (coordinates: 33.492883, 73.917205).

Remarks: This species was reported from Pakistan by Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Pheropsophus stenoderus Chaudoir, 1850 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtun-khwa, Lower Dir (coordinates: 34.872384, 71.747955).

Remarks: This species is not mentioned in the Catalogue of Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

Subfamily Broscinae Hope, 1838

  1. Broscus punctatus Dejean, 1828 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Balochistan Province,
Nushki, Balochistan (coordinates: 29.550023, 66.033995).

Remarks: This species was reported from North Africa and Asia by Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

Subfamily Carabinae Latreille, 1802

  1. Carabus (Imaibius) caschmirensis fortetuberculatus Heinz, 1983

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Azad Kashmir, Rawlakot (coordinates: 33.858504, 73.770353).

Remarks: This species was reported from Pakistan by Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.]. It was collected from Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir in dead form. Panin Ruslan also indicated C. I. barysomus and caschmirensis but in the catalogue, later species is more reliable as tubercles are found on the body.

  1. Carabus (Imaibius) wittmerorum Heinertz 1978

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Shangla (coordinates: 34.890306, 72.601120).

Remarks: Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.] reported this subspecies from Pakistan.

  1. Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum andrewesi, Breuning, 1928

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tharparkar, Wejhiar (coordinates: 24.990073, 70.193348).

Remarks: Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.] did not report this subspecies in the catalogue.

  1. Calosoma maderae indicum Hope, 1830

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Balochistan Province, Nushki (coordinates: 33.994992, 73.383779).

Remarks: This species was reported from Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.]. Hashmi and Tashfeen [3535Hashmi AA, Tashfeen A. Coleoptera of Pakistan. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology. 1992; 12:133-170.] listed Calosoma indicum and Calosoma maderae separately.

  1. Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum imbricatum Klug, 1832 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tharparkar (coordinates: 24.707351, 70.177582).

Remarks: This subspecies was reported from Saudi Arabia and Yemen by Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Calosoma (Compalita) Olivieri Dejean 1831

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Dera Ismail Khan, Dahoter Adda (coordinates: 31.989014, 70.972574).

Remarks: This species was reported from Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Calosoma (Calosoma) scabrosum roeschkei Breuning, 1927 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Balochistan Province, Nushki (coordinates: 29.573011, 65.986125).

Remarks: This subspecies was formerly named as C. orientale Hope, 1831 but Hackel, et al. [2626Hackel M, Azadbakhsh S. Two new species of Microcosmodes Strand (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Panagaenini) from Oman and Iran. Zootaxa 4137. 2016; (4): 553-560.] synonymized some species of Calosoma and the species C. orientale has been changed. The Catalogue of Lobl & Lobl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.] did not report this subspecies.

Subfamily Dryptinae Bonelli, 1810

Dryptini Bonelli, 1810

  1. Drypta (Drypta) lineola virgata Chaudoir,1850

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Noshehroferoze (coordinates: 26.848656, 68.132323).

Remarks: This subspecies was reported from Pakistan by Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.]. Hashmi and Tashfeen [3535Hashmi AA, Tashfeen A. Coleoptera of Pakistan. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology. 1992; 12:133-170.] listed this species as D. lineola from Pakistan.

Galeritini Le Conte 1853

  1. Planetes bimaculatus W.S. MacLeay, 1825 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tando M. Khan (coordinates: 25.136728, 68.545308).

Remarks: The species distributed in Arunachal Pradesh [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Zuphium (Zuphium) olens olens P. Rossi 1790

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Noshehroferoze (coordinates: 26.840658, 68.110892).

Remarks: This species was reported from Europe, North Africa and Asia including Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.]. Hashmi and Tashfeen [3535Hashmi AA, Tashfeen A. Coleoptera of Pakistan. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology. 1992; 12:133-170.] listed this species as Z. olens from Pakistan.

  1. Galerita indica Chaudoir, 1861 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Lower Dir, Bandagai (coordinates: 34.787449,
71.923909).

Remarks: This species is reported from Asia as Hindustan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.]. Borislav Gueorgulev suggested this species should be G. indica or probably G. ruficeps (personnel communication). Ron Felix suggested as G. orientalis (personal communication).

  1. Ophionea (Ophionea) indica New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Noshehroferoze (coordinates: 26.846960, 68.113693).

Remarks: Hashmi & Tashfeen [3535Hashmi AA, Tashfeen A. Coleoptera of Pakistan. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology. 1992; 12:133-170.] listed Cosnoidea indica, but this species was reported from Asia except Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

Subfamily Harpalinae Bonelli, 1810

  1. Idiomelas fulvipes indus Kataev, 1997 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtun-khwa, Hafizabad (coordinates: 32.065141, 73.704510).

Remarks: This species was reported from Nepal only [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Metacolopodes buchanani (Hope, 1831)

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tharparkar, Mahalore Khawria (coordinates: 24.696048, 69.965287).

Remarks: This species was reported from Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.]. Hashmi and Tashfeen [3535Hashmi AA, Tashfeen A. Coleoptera of Pakistan. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology. 1992; 12:133-170.] listed this species as Colpodes buchanani from Pakistan.

  1. Microlestes discoidalis Fairmaire, 1892 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Village Tando M. Khan (coordinates: 25.124363, 68.549682).

Remarks: Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.] reported from Iran, Afghanistan, Oman, Turkemanistan, Yemen.

Chlaeniini Brulle, 1834

  1. Chlaenius (Amblygenius) atripes Chaudoir 1876

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Dera Ismail Khan, Bilot Sharif (coordinates: 32.243162, 71.164421).

Remarks: This species is not included in the Catalogue of Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.]. Ullah, et al. [4242Ullah M, Naeem M, Mahmood K, Garner B. Addition to the knowledge of tribe Chlaeniini Brull, 1834 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Pakistan. Zootaxa. 2022; 5115(4): 451-486.] reported from Pakistan as the new record.

  1. Chlaenius (Amblygenius) bengalensis Chaudoir New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Noshehroferoze (coordinates: 26.837090, 68.131691).

Remarks: The species listed are from Asia [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.]. Erich Kirschenhofer identified this species (personnel communication).

  1. Chlaenius cookie Andrewes, 1933 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tharparkar, Dane Jo Goth (coordinates: 24.591358, 70.676742).

Remarks: This species is not listed in the catalogue by Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.], Alexander Anichtchenko identified this species, also one specimen of this species is retained in Saeed Azad Bakhsh, Iran.

  1. Chlaenius (Amblygenius) quadricolor orientalis (Dejean 1826)

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tharparkar, Pilu (coordinates: 24.655688, 70.574333).

Remarks: This species is reported from Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.]. Hashmi and Tashfeen [3535Hashmi AA, Tashfeen A. Coleoptera of Pakistan. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology. 1992; 12:133-170.] listed the species Chlaenius quadricolor from Pakistan.

  1. Chalenius (Pachydinodes) hamifer Chaudoir, 1856

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tharparkar, Mithi (coordinates: 24.745248, 69.816273).

Remarks: This species was reported from Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Chlaenius (Pachydinodes) pictus Chaudoir 1856

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Dera Ismail Khan, Dayal Rd (coordinates: 31.900197, 70.907896).

Remarks: This species was reported from Asia [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Chlaenius (Pachydinodes) posticus (Fabricius 1798)

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Dera Ismail Khan (coordinates: 31.899554, 70.894592).

Remarks: This species was reported from Asia including Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Chlaenius pretiosus Chaudoir, 1856

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tharparkar, Nagarparkar (coordinates: 24.365644, 70.751907).

Remarks: This species was reported from Pakistan [3535Hashmi AA, Tashfeen A. Coleoptera of Pakistan. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology. 1992; 12:133-170.] but not listed in the catalogue by Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Chlaenius (Chlaenites) spoliatus spoliatus P. Rossi, 1792 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Balochistan Province, Nushki (coordinates: 29.569178, 65.989942).

Remarks: The subspecies distributed in Europe and Asia including Afghanistan, China, Cyprus, East Siberia, Far East, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Lebonan, Mongolia, Syria, Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan and West Siberia [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Harpaglossus opacus (Chaudoir, 1856)

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tharparkar, Nangarparkar (coordinates: 24.368486, 70.755206).

Remarks: Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.] did not list this species. Ullah, et al. [4242Ullah M, Naeem M, Mahmood K, Garner B. Addition to the knowledge of tribe Chlaeniini Brull, 1834 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Pakistan. Zootaxa. 2022; 5115(4): 451-486.] reported this species from Pakistan.

  1. Harpalus (Cryptophonus) tenebrosus Dejean, 1829

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tharparkar, Mithi (coordinates: 24.675028, 69.782552).

Remarks: This species is reported from Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Harpalus (Pseudophanus) meridianus Andrewes, 1923

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tharparkar, Mithrio (coordinates: 24.690873, 69.967640).

Remarks: This species was reported from Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

Cyclosomini Laporte, 1834

  1. Masoreus (Masoreus) orientalis orientalis Dejean, 1828

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Noshehroferoze (coordinates: 26.851427, 68.123419).

Remarks: The species distributed in North Africa and Asia including Iran, India, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Turkmenistan and Yemen [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.]. Hashmi and Tashfeen [3535Hashmi AA, Tashfeen A. Coleoptera of Pakistan. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology. 1992; 12:133-170.] listed this species as Masoreus orientalis from Pakistan.

  1. Caphora afghana Jedlička, 1956 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Noshehroferoze (coordinates: 26.846634, 68.135523).

Remarks: This species was reported from Afghanistan only [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Tetragonoderus (Tetragonoderus) lindemannae Jedlička, 1963a [4444Jedlička A. Monographie der Truncatipennen aus Ostasien. Lebiinae-Odacanthinae -Brachyninae (Coleoptera, Carabidae). – Entomologische Abhandlungen und Berichte aus dem Staatlichen Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden. 1963; 28 [1962 - 1964]: 269–579.]

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tando M. Khan (coordinates: 25.127535, 68.550250).

Remarks: This species was reported from Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.]. However, the patches on apices of elytra show variable marks in some species.

Licinini Bonelli, 1810

  1. Diplochiela (Diplocheila) laevigata Bates, 1892 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Dera Ismail Khan, Hafiz Abad, Khaki (coordinates: 32.077828, 71.034322).

Remarks: This species was reported from Asia [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

Lebiini Bonelli, 1810

  1. Glycia spencei (Gistel, 1838)

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tharparkar, Mithi (coordinates: 24.742221, 69.808648).

Remarks: This species was reported from Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. 41. Eucolliuris fuscipennis Chaudoir, 1850 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Noshehroferoze (coordinates: 26.847685, 68.137008).

Remarks: The species distributed in China, Japan and Taiwan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.]

  1. Platytarus faminii faminii (Dejean, 1826) New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Noshehroferoze (coordinates: 6.832258, 68.110708).

Remarks: The subspecies distributed in Europe, North Africa and Asia including Cyprus, Iraq, Israel, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkmenistan, Turkey and Uzbekistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Syntomus lateralis lateralis Motschulsky, 1855 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Noshehroferoze (coordinates: 26.849837, 68.114656).

Remarks: This species was reported from the Nearctic and Asia [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Trichis maculata Klug, 1832

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Noshehroferoze (coordinates: 26.847167, 68.131989).

Remarks: This species was reported from Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

Subfamily Melaeninae Csiki, 1933

  1. Cymbionotum (Cymbionotum) striatum Reitter, 1894

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Noshehroferoze (coordinates: 26.844978, 68.135186).

Remarks: The locality of this species is not mentioned in the Catalogue by Löbl & Löbl [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Cymbionotum candidum Andrewes, 1935 [44Andrewes HE. The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Harpalinae. 1935; 1I:1: 1-328.]

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tando M. Khan (coordinates: 25.133894, 68.549435).

Remarks: This species was reported from Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Cymbionotum semelederi Chaudoir, 1861 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tando M. Khan (coordinates: 25.120837, 68.551680).

Remarks: This species was reported from Europe, North Africa and Asia [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

Tribe Panagaeini Bonelli, 1810

  1. Microschemus flavopilosus (Laferté-Sénectere, 1851)

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Noshehroferoze (coordinates: 26.851508, 68.141002).

Remarks: The species is reported from Asia, but there is a question mark ahead of Pakistan in the catalogue prepared by Hackel and Kirschenhofer, a part of Panageini. When I sent this material to Hackel in 2014, he then inserted it. However, Hackel and Azadbakhsh [2626Hackel M, Azadbakhsh S. Two new species of Microcosmodes Strand (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Panagaenini) from Oman and Iran. Zootaxa 4137. 2016; (4): 553-560.] argued that this species is still unknown in Pakistan.

  1. Craspedophorus elegans (Dejean, 1826)

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Lower Dir, Village Munda (coordinates: 34.874818, 71.749574).

Remarks: This species is known from Pakistan and Nepal [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Microcosmodes arabicus Hackel & Azadbakhsh, 2016 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tharparkar, Mithi (coordinates: .861757, 69.919740).

Remarks: This species is described as new from Iran by Hackel and Azadbakhsh, [2626Hackel M, Azadbakhsh S. Two new species of Microcosmodes Strand (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Panagaenini) from Oman and Iran. Zootaxa 4137. 2016; (4): 553-560.]. The western Palaearctic region encompasses desert regions of India, Iran and Africa, therefore transitional species could be possible.

Subfamily Harpalinae Bonelli, 1810

  1. Sphodrus leucopthalmus Linne, 1758 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Balochistan Province, Sibi, Mir Chakir Road (coordinates: 29.551231, 67.897450).

Remarks: The species are distributed from the West Palaearctic region to Europe [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

Subfamily Scaritinae Bonelli, 1810

Scaritini Bonelli, 1810

  1. Scarites (Scallophorites) guineensis Dejean, 1831 New record

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tharparkar, Islamkot Rd (coordinates: 24.726309, 69.835020).

Remarks: This species was reported from Asia [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

  1. Scarites (Scarites) procerus eurytus Fischer von Waldheim, 1828

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Tharparkar (coordinates: 24.746728, 69.789779).

Remarks: The species distributed in Europe, North Africa and Asia including Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

Subfamily Siagoninae Bonelli, 1813

  1. Siagona dilutipes Chaudoir, 1850

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Noshehroferoze (coordinates: 26.840574, 68.135375).

Remarks: This species is distributed in Himachal Pradesh and Pakistan [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.].

Subfamily Trechinae Bonelli, 1810

Bembidiini Stephens, 1827

  1. Bembidion (Notaphocampa) niloticum niloticum Dejean, 1831

Distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan, Sindh Province, Noshehroferoze (coordinates: 26.840745, 68.099704).

Remarks: This species is distributed in Asia Minor. In the last catalogue by Lorenz, B. niloticum and B. batesi are considered different species, with batesi being synonymized with B. opulentum (Personal communication with Alexander Anischenko). This species is distributed in Europe, North Africa, and Asia [4343Löbl I, Löbl D. Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Revised and updated edition, Volume 1. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. 2017;1477.-4646Chaudhry GU, Chaudhry MI, Khan SM. Survey of insect fauna of forests of Pakistan. Final Technical Report. Biological Sciences Research Division. Pakistan Forest Institute. Peshawar. 167pp. deposited in National Insect Museum of Pakistan, Oriental Insects. 1966; 1-8.]. Hashmi and Tashfeen [3535Hashmi AA, Tashfeen A. Coleoptera of Pakistan. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology. 1992; 12:133-170.] listed this species as B. niloticum from Pakistan.

Conclusion

The ecozone of Pakistan encompasses all biodiversity hotspots, with the majority of areas cultivating a variety of cereals, crops, and fruits on both large and small scales. While the lower part of Sindh Province, along the sea belt, may not have as much agricultural importance, the upper Sindh Province is known for its high yields of major crops. The western part of Sindh Province exhibits a great diversity of insects, especially in the transitional belt between India and Pakistan, which is a vast desert with a complex and specific fauna. A similar situation is observed in Nushki, Balochistan, which is surrounded by huge sandy mounds like a red desert and mountains connected to the borders of Afghanistan. The western Palaearctic zone extends and overlaps on several points from Afghanistan and Iran, bounded by geographical barriers restricting species within certain limits.

As for the species and numbers known from Pakistan, the present work comprises a large number of taxa identified by world authorities in their expertise, with many species retained in their hands or museums. Most species are still awaiting determination by experts, which could increase the number of species in the fauna of Carabidae of Pakistan in the future.

Acknowledgement

We are indebted to Lianghong Bin (China), Alexander Anisctchenko (Russia), Saeed Azadbakhsh (Iran), Borislav Gu, Riccardo Sciaky, Ron Felix, Martin Hackel, Erich Krischenhofer, and Panin Ruslan for their valuable comments and assistance in species determination.

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Ahmed Z, Lalika HA, Khatri I, Kirschenhofer E. Contribution to the Knowledge of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Pakistan. IgMin Res. 17 Apr, 2024; 2(4): 236-244. IgMin ID: igmin171; DOI: 10.61927/igmin171; Available at: igmin.link/p171

  • Received
    26 Mar 2024

  • Accepted
    16 Apr 2024

  • Published
    17 Apr 2024

DOI10.61927/igmin171

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Topics
  1. Lorenz W. Systematic list of extant Ground Beetles of the world. Tutzing, printed by the author. 1998; 502.

  2. Lorenz W. A systematic list of extant ground beetles of the world. Publish by the author, Tutzing, Germany. 2005.

  3. Andrewes HE. The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Carabinae. 1929; 1:1-431.

  4. Andrewes HE. The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Harpalinae. 1935; 1I:1: 1-328.

  5. Kumar P, Rajagopal D. Carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of Karnataka with their prey and ecological notes. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 1996; 9(4): 610-615.

  6. Thakare VG, Zade VS, Hedge VD. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of Melghat Tiger Reserve, Central India. Journal of New Biological Reports. 2013; 2(2): 173-176.

  7. Kataev BM, Jaeger B. A new species of Acupalpus from East Asia (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl. 1997; 73: 343-346.

  8. Kataev B.M., 1997.- A taxonomic review of Hemiaulax, Idiomelas and Egaploa with a description of two new species of Stenolophus from southeast Asia (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Zoosystematica Rossica, 6(1/2): 237-254.

  9. Kataev BM. On some Palaearctic species of Harpalini described by A. Jedlicka (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Zoosystematica Rossica. 1999; 8(1): 150.

  10. Kataev BM. On the types of some Palaearctic Harpalus in the Museum National d Histoire Naturelle, Paris.Russian Entomol. J. 2002; 11(2):191-195.

  11. Kataev BM. Taxonomic, Faunistic and nomenclatural notes on certain Palaearctic and Oriental Harpalini (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Linzer Biol.Beitr. 2002; 34/1: 721-736.

  12. Kataev BM. To the knowledge of the genus Harpalus Latreille, 1802 of the Eastern Palaearctic (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Proceedings of the Russian Entomological Society. 2006; 77: 137-165.

  13. Kataev BM, Wrase DW. New taxa of the genus Harpalus Latr. From China and Turkey (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Linzer Biol.Beitr. 1997; 29/2: 991-1014.

  14. Kataev BM, Wrase DW. Two new species of the subgenus Egadroma (genus Stenolophus) from South Asia, with redescription of Stenolophus (Egadroma) ovatulus (Bates, 1889) (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Zoosystenatica Rossica. 2013; 22(2): 258-265.

  15. Kataev BM, Liang H. Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Harpalus in China, with description of new taxa (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalini). Zootaxa. 2007; 1604:1-20.

  16. Ghahari H, Kesdek M, Samin N, Ostovan H, Havaskary M, Imani S. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of Iranian cotton fields and surrounding grasslands. Mun.Ent. Zool. 2009; 4(2):436-450.

  17. Ghahari H, Avgin SS, Ostovan H. Carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected from different ecosystems in Iran with new records. Turk. Entomol. Derg. 2010; 34(2):179-195.

  18. Samin N, Sakenin H, Kesdek M, Imani S. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from some regions of Iran. Linzer Biol.Beitr. 2011; 43/1: 873-880.

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