cfp-adv.jpg
Science

Science (56) at IgMin Research

Our mission is to foster interdisciplinary dialogue and accelerate the advancement of knowledge across a wide spectrum of scientific domains.


Explore the intricate world of living organisms through disciplines such as Zoology, Histology, and Microbiology. Immerse yourself in the complexities of genomics and molecular biology, uncover the mysteries of taxonomic systems, and delve into the world of human biology. Venture into the realms of chemistry, from Organic Chemistry to Physical Chemistry, and explore the delicate balances of Earth's ecosystems through Atmospheric Science and Ecology....

Editors

Latest Articles (25)

Opinion Article ID: igmin186
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Comprehensive Regeneration Approach as a Framework for Sustainable Development and Biodiversity
by Stephen J Browne

Several national and international frameworks have been developed to halt and reverse biodiversity loss by 2030 and help address the ongoing climate and biodiversity crises. These frameworks provide the targets against which locally applicable action plans can be created. The Royal Commission for AlUla and the IUCN hav...e developed Comprehensive Regeneration as the framework of nature-positive initiatives and as a model for the responsible development of AlUla County in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Biodiversity
Review Article Article ID: igmin182
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Expressivity Dimension of Speech is the basis of the Expression Dimension. Evidence from Behavioural and Neuroimaging Studies
by Isabelle Hesling

The modalities of communication are the sum of the expression dimension (linguistics) and the expressivity dimension (prosody), both being equally important in language communication. The expressivity dimension which comes first in the act of speech, is the basis on which phonemes, syllables, words, grammar, and morpho...syntax, i.e., the expression dimension of speech is superimposed. We will review evidence (1) revealing the importance of prosody in language acquisition and (2) showing that prosody triggers the involvement of specific brain areas dedicated to sentences and word-list processing. To support the first point, we will not only rely on experimental psychology studies conducted in newborns and young children but also on neuroimaging studies that have helped to validate these behavioral experiments. Then, neuroimaging data on adults will allow for the conclusion that the expressivity dimension of speech modulates both the right hemisphere prosodic areas and the left hemisphere network in charge of the expression dimension.

Linguistics Developmental BiologyCognitive Science
Review Article Article ID: igmin180
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Wishful Thinking about Consciousness
by Peter Grindrod

We contrast three very distinct mathematical approaches to the hard problem of consciousness: quantum consciousness, integrated information theory, and the very large-scale dynamical systems simulation of a network of networks. We highlight their features and their associated hypotheses, and we discuss how they are ali...gned or in conflict. We suggest some challenges to these theories, in considering how they might apply to the human brain as it develops both cognitive and conscious sophistication, from infancy to adulthood. We indicate how an evolutionary perspective challenges the distinct approaches to aver performance advantages and physiological surrogates for consciousness.

Cognitive Science Behavioral Science
Case Report Article ID: igmin179
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Into the Deep: Diving Record for the Dice Snake Natrix tessellata (Laurenti, 1768) in Lake Orta, NW Italy
by Stefano Bovero and Paola Viviana Trovò

Many snakes live close to water, with several groups displaying morphological, physiological, or behavioral adaptions to aquatic environments. Although marine snakes have been found at depths beyond 200 m, freshwater snakes are rarely reported at depths larger than a few meters. Here we report freshwater depth records ...for the dice snake Natrix tessellata, an aquatic snake belonging to the family Natricidae. Dice snake was observed at depths down to 17 m, including in habitats below the thermocline, in Lake Orta (Northern Italy). These observations open new perspectives related to the biology and physiology of Palearctic freshwater snakes belonging to the family Natricidae.

Biodiversity EthologyEcology
Short Communication Article ID: igmin177
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Isolation and Characterization of Active Alkaloid Compounds from Cinnamomum Verum Cortexes and Proof of their Medicinal Efficacy against Pathogenic Fungus Alternaria Alternate Causing Upper Respiratory Tract Inflammatory Disease
by Sanaa Qasem Badr

Six alkaloid compounds were isolated (the discovery of a natural drug, which is a combination of the six alkaloid compounds). Alkaloids viz., 1,3,5-Triazine-2-carboxylic acid, 4-amino-6-methyl; 1,2,4-Triazino[5,6-E][1,2,4]-triazine-3,6-dione, hexahydro; 2-(4,5-Dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-4-pyrazole)-5-nitrobenzoic ...acid; 4-metyl-3,4-dihydro-[1,2,3] trizolo [4,5-d] pyrimidine-5,7-dione; Propanoic acid-3-(perhydro-2,5-dioxo-imidazol [4,5-d] imidazole-1-yl) and 1,2,3-Triazolo[4,5-f] benzotriazole- 4,8(4H,8H)-dione, were isolated from Cinnamomum verum cortexes by using ethanolic acetic acid, sulphuric acid, and ammonia solvents, and they were characterized by using preliminary qualitative tests, gas chromatography-mass spectrumGC-MASS.The medicinal efficacy was studied for these six alkaloidic compounds theoretically by using the Autodock program and the results showed the presence of high efficacy of the compounds. Then the medicinal efficacy was measured biologically for the six compounds mixture in vitro depending on the synergistic interaction principle by using various concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mg/ml) by using of agar diffusion technique. The results showed that the six alkaloidic compounds’ mixture is biologically active against Alternaria alternate fungus, where the inhibition zone diameters were recorded equal to 27, 33, 41, 45, and 49 mm respectively towards the pathogenic fungus. Also, cytotoxicity tests for the different concentrations of six active alkaloid compounds mixture proved there is no toxic effect belonging to them towards red blood cells, and no hemolysis effect appeared in blood cells. Therefore, six alkaloid compounds isolated from Cinnamomum verum cortexes can be used as active drugs for the treatment of various diseases especially those caused by pathogenic fungi represented by Alternaria alternate, without any side effects.

Biochemistry MicrobiologyEthnomedicine
Research Article Article ID: igmin175
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

LC-MS and HPLC-UV for Detecting Uremic Toxins: Two Validated Methods with Simultaneous Sensitivity and Specificity Evaluation
by Cristina Filosa

Uremic toxins (UTs) are compounds derived from the metabolism of dietary molecules such as tryptophan (Indossyl Sulphate, IS) and phenil-alanine (P-Cresyl Sulphate, PCS), that are normally eliminated by the kidneys of healthy patients. The accumulation of such toxins is an indicator of kidney disease at different degre...es of severity, and the toxins can be found as free or protein bound in human biological samples. The toxicity of such compounds causes the loss of several biological functions, and the subjects suffering from such complications will need, more often than not, hemodialysis to properly excrete these toxins. Despite this not being a resolutive, but rather a symptom managing clinical approach, this is the most common course of treatment. Two analytical methods are proposed to quantify both the protein-bound and free forms of IS and PCS (HPLC-UV for the former; LC-MS/MS with ESI negative ionization for the latter), with lower variability and higher robustness than what is currently proposed, allowing for a precise simultaneous determination of the aforementioned UTs.

Molecular Biology
Mini Review Article ID: igmin174
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The use of FIKR (Facet, Insight, Knowledge, and Resilience) Personality as an Effective Assessment Tool to Select the Best Leadership in an Organization
by Chee Kong YapChee Seng Leow and Wing Sum Vincent Leong

This study presents a new assessment tool, FIKR (Facet, Insight, Knowledge, and Resilience) Personality Traits (PTs) for organisational talent development and leadership. The FIKR assessment tool offers a thorough framework for developing talent and leadership, covering facets, insights, knowledge, and resilience. By u...sing these elements, individuals can enhance their ability to successfully and strategically guide and influence others. Gaining self-awareness of one’s strengths and shortcomings, harmonising personal values with objectives for developing talents, obtaining the requisite information and abilities, and cultivating resilience not only promotes personal progress but also cultivates the potential of people within the organisation. By embracing the interaction of these FIKR characteristics, one may adopt a comprehensive and influential approach to talent development and leadership.

Sustainable Chemistry Computational Biology
Research Article Article ID: igmin171
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Contribution to the Knowledge of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Pakistan
by Zubair AhmedHaseeb Ahmed Lalika and Eric Kirschenhofer

The present study is based on the examination of specimens housed in different museums and collections, including those of Lianghong Bin (China), Bernd Jaeger (Germany), Saeed Azadbakhsh (Iran), Alexander Anichtchenko (Latvia), Martin Hackel (Czech Republic), Ron Felix (Germany), and the first author (ZACP). A prelimin...ary survey was randomly conducted in various areas of Pakistan from 2016 to 2023. A precise investigation revealed 17 subspecies and 36 species within 31 genera, distributed across 12 subfamilies in the family Carabidae. This survey also documented twenty-three new records for the country, expanding our understanding of their distribution. All determinations presented here are confirmed and validated by Löbl & Löbl (2017). Subfamily Harpalinae tribe Anthiini with 02 species Anthia (Anthia) sexguttata mannerheimii, A. (A.) sexguttata sexguttata Brachininae with 03 species Brachinus (Aploa) nobilis Pheropsophus (Stenaptinus) catoirei, P. (S.) lissoderus, P. stenoderus. Subfamily Broscinae with 01 species Broscus punctatus. Subfamily Carabinae with 07 species Carabus (Imaibius) caschmirensis fortetuberculatus, C. (I.) wittmerorum, Calosoma (Caminara) imbricatum andrewesi, C. (C.) maderae indicum, C. (C.) imbricatum imbricatum, C. Calosoma (Compalita) Olivieri, C. (Calosoma) scabrosum roeschkei. Subfamily Dryptinae, Dryptini with 01 species Drypta (Drypta) lineola virgata, tribe Galeritini with 04 species records Planetes bimaculatus, Zuphium (Zuphium) olens olens, Galerita indica, Ophionea (Ophionea) indica. Subfamily Harpalinae with 03 species Idiomelas fulvipes indus, Metacolopodes buchanani, Microlestes discoidalis, tribe Chlaeniini with 12 species Chlaenius (Amblygenius) atripes, C. (A.) bengalensis, C. (A.) cookie, C. (A.) Chlaenius (Amblygenius) quadricolor orientalis, C. (Pachydinodes) hamifer, C. (P.) pictus, C. (P.) posticus, C. pretiosus, C. (Chlaenites) spoliatus spoliatus, Harpaglossus opacus, H. (Cryptophonus) tenebrosus, H. (Pseudophanus) meridianus, tribe Cyclosomini with 03 species records, Masoreus (Masoreus) orientalis orientalis, Caphora afghani, Tetragonoderus (Tetragonoderus) lindemannae, tribe Licinini with 06 species record, Diplochiela (Diplocheila) laevigata, Glycia spencei, Eucolliuris fuscipennis, Platytarus faminii faminii, Syntomus lateralis lateralis,     Trichis maculata. Subfamily Melaeninae with 03 spies, Cymbionotum (Cymbionotum) striatum, C. Cymbionotum candidum, C. semelederi, tribe Panagaeini with 03 species Microschemus flavopilosus, M. arabicus, Craspedophorus elegans. Subfamily Harpalinae with 01 species Sphodrus leucopthalmus. Subfamily Scaritinae, Scaritini with 02 species Scarites (Scallophorites) guineensis, S. (Scarites) procerus eurytus, subfamily Siagoninae with 01 species Siagona dilutipes and subfamily Trechinae, Bembidiini with 01 species Bembidion (Notaphocampa) niloticum niloticum.

Ecology BiodiversityTaxonomic SystemsZoology
Review Article Article ID: igmin166
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Qualitative Model of Electrical Conductivity of Irradiated Semiconductor
by Temur Pagava, Levan Chkhartishvili, Manana Beridze, Darejan Khocholava, Marina Shogiradze and Ramaz Esiava

There is constructed a qualitative model of the electrical conductivity of semiconductors irradiated with sufficiently high-energy particles. At certain conditions (irradiation temperature and dose, and subsequent thermal treatment), high-energy particles fluence, in addition to primary and secondary point radiation de...fects, forms a number of nano-sized disordered regions, highly conductive (“metallic”) compared to the semiconductor matrix. Their high total volume fraction can lead to the charge major carriers’ effective Hall mobility significantly exceeding that of the matrix. Due to elastic stresses created by these disordered inclusions, a high concentration of point radiation defects tends to form defective shells. In certain temperature ranges, such nanosized core-shell structures act as capacitors storing the electric charge sufficient for the Coulomb blockade of the major current carriers. Transformation of high-conductive inclusions into low-conductive (“dielectric”) ones manifests in a noticeable decrease in effective Hall mobility. The proposed model qualitatively explains all the experimental data available on single-crystalline n- and p-type silicon irradiated with high-energy electrons and protons and isochronously annealed.

Nanotechnology
Short Communication Article ID: igmin163
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Comments to Megascopic Quantum Phenomena
by Michal Svrček

We present here the incompleteness of the Copenhagen interpretation regarding the impossibility of explaining the transition from the exact quantum mechanics to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, where the inaccurate method captures phenomena like spontaneous symmetry breaking, but this is impossible to achieve with e...xact equations. The solution to this dilemma lies in the revision of quantum field theory which bounds together internal and external (vibrational, translational, and rotational) degrees of freedom in a similar way as the Lorentz transformation deals with space and time. This is the only way how to exactly mathematically justify the corrections beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (Born-Huang ansatz). The consequences are overwhelming: It reveals the wrong BCS theory of superconductivity, derived on the basis of the incomplete quantum field, and all erroneous theories inspired by the BCS one (e.g. Higgs mechanism). Moreover, the second Bohr complementarity emerges from the mechanical wholeness and field fragmentation, opening the door for the megascopic mirror of the microscopic Copenhagen interpretation and for the explanation of megascopic quantum phenomena. Finally, we get an entirely new look at the meaning of physics and chemistry: The first one deals with microscopic and the second one with megascopic phenomena.

Quantum Chemistry Physical ChemistryComputational Chemistry
Research Article Article ID: igmin158
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Balancing Act: Exploring the Interplay Between Human Judgment and Artificial Intelligence in Problem-solving, Creativity, and Decision-making
by Abdulrahman M Al-Zahrani

This study explores the repercussions of excessive reliance on Artificial Intelligence (AI) on human cognitive processes, specifically targeting problem-solving, creativity, and decision-making. Employing qualitative semi-structured interviews and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), it delves into the nuanc...ed challenges and risks stemming from an overemphasis on AI. The research illuminates a nuanced landscape: while AI streamlines problem-solving tasks and provides valuable support, there’s a crucial need to safeguard human judgment and intuition. In the realm of creativity, divergent viewpoints emerge, underscoring concerns regarding AI’s potential limitations and advocating for a harmonious interplay between AI-generated suggestions and individual creative thought. Regarding decision-making, participants recognize AI’s utility but underscore the necessity of blending AI insights with critical thinking and consideration of unique circumstances. They caution against complacency, advocating for a judicious equilibrium between AI guidance and individual expertise. This study innovates by providing multifaceted insights into the complexities of AI-human interaction, uncovering nuanced perspectives on its impacts across problem-solving, creativity, and decision-making domains. By bridging this gap, it advances understanding of how AI integration influences cognitive processes, offering practical implications for fostering a balanced approach. Its innovative methodology combines qualitative interviews and IPA, offering rich, nuanced data that provide a deeper understanding of the subject matter. This research serves as a beacon for promoting awareness of the risks associated with overreliance on AI, advocating for a mindful integration that upholds human agency while leveraging AI capabilities effectively.

Cognitive Science
Research Article Article ID: igmin147
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Efficacy of Different Concentrations of Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs) on Maize Stem Borer Infestation
by Muhammad Salman Hameed, Khurshied Ahmed Khan, Nida Urooj and Ijaz Rasool Noorka

Maize stem borer (Chilo Partellus), poses a substantial threat to maize crops all over the world, causing damage that ranges from 26.7% to 80.4%. Its destructive impact includes killing the shoot in young plants, leading to a “dead heart,” and damaging the upper stem in older plants through boring activity.... To combat this issue, a field experiment evaluated various insect growth regulators (IGRs) such as Lufenuron®, Pyriproxyfen®, Sitara®, Viper®, Track®, and Priority®. These IGRs, known as reduced-risk pesticides, target pest juveniles and are less harmful to beneficial insects. Conducted through a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 24 treatments, excluding a control group, the study recorded maize stem borer populations at 3, 7, and 14 days post-IGR application. In conclusion, the study identifies pyriproxyfen® and Priority® at double the standard concentrations as highly effective insect growth regulators in mitigating maize stem borer infestations, offering promising avenues for enhanced pest control strategies in maize cultivation.

Etiology Species InteractionParasitology
Review Article Article ID: igmin155
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Analysis of EU Countries’ Capabilities to Achieve Ambitious “Zero Victim” Vision in 2050
by Valentina Peleckienė and Peleckis K

The objective of this research paper is to examine and assess the correlation between the economic expansion of European Union member states and the escalating rate of motorization, which subsequently leads to road accidents resulting in significant loss of life and injury. A statistical analysis of economic growth, th...e rate of motorization, and road incidents in EU member states from 2010 to 2020 constitutes the research methodology. The research paper employs a quantitative approach to analysis and comparison. The research paper demonstrates how an increase in the number of motor vehicles in EU member states contributes to road accidents and human mortality. Varying degrees of economic development are associated with disparities between the rate of motorization expansion and the decline in fatalities. Because the rate of increase in motor vehicle usage surpasses the decline in fatalities per motor vehicle at low-income levels. At increased levels of income, the opposite occurs. Practical Implications: This research paper illustrates the importance for road traffic safety authorities to be aware of safety performance indicators and to incorporate them into legislative deliberations in order to bolster the European Union’s “zero victims” objective and provide enhanced protection for motor vehicle accident victims. Originality – This paper examines the correlation between motorization rates and fatalities in various EU member states with varying degrees of economic development over the past few decades.

Atmospheric Science
Research Article Article ID: igmin153
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Effect of Rainfall on Water Parameters in Recreational Lakes in Heidelberg, Germany
by Abhishek Chowfin, Nikola Gluvakovic and Ulrike Gayh

This study evaluates the impact of precipitation on water quality in Heidelberg, Germany’s recreational lakes during sporadic rainfall events from August to September 2023. Data were collected from five stations, monitoring physicochemical properties and nutrient levels before and after rainfall. Measurements of ...dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and redox potential were conducted in situ, while turbidity, nitrates, phosphates, sulphates, zinc, and copper levels were analyzed in the SRH Heidelberg water laboratory. Findings indicate pH levels increased due to dilution effects, while conductivity rose due to runoff, enhancing ion concentration in the lakes. Dissolved oxygen levels also increased, attributed to aeration from rainfall-induced surface turbulence. Redox potential decreased, reflecting atmospheric oxygen dissolution. Nutrient concentrations, including nitrates and phosphates, along with sulphates, declined post-rainfall, suggesting a dilution effect without significant impact from surface runoff. This outcome implies the absence of major nutrient and sulphate sources upstream. Heavy metals like zinc and copper also decreased in concentration, indicating no introduction through runoff or sediment transport. The study underscores the variability of water quality parameters across different lakes, influenced by factors such as water sources, surrounding land use, geological conditions, and lake characteristics. Overall, water quality improved post-rainfall, making the lakes suitable for recreational activities, with the study establishing a non-linear correlation among the water quality parameters and deducing the P ratio for each parameter.

Water Quality EcologyAtmospheric Science
Review Article Article ID: igmin148
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Kazakh Language Requires Reform of its Writing
by Sharipbay Altynbek

The article provides information about modern problems of writing the Kazakh language, the importance of its role and development in the context of mass digitization using artificial intelligence technologies and computational linguistics methods. The incorrectness of the current alphabet of the Kazakh language based o...n the Cyrillic alphabet is proved in connection with the inclusion of Cyrillic letters in it, denoting phonemes that are not included in its sound structure. The necessity of reforming the Kazakh writing by replacing the incorrect alphabet is substantiated. Errors and contradictions are shown in the approved version of the Kazakh alphabet based on the Latin alphabet, as well as the alphabet proposed as a replacement for the approved one, in which some previous errors are repeated. In both cases, no analysis and clarification of the sound system of the Kazakh language, which is the basis of any alphabet, is carried out. In this study, to clarify the sound system of the Kazakh language, experiments were carried out to determine the articulation and acoustic features of Kazakh sounds with the help the computer programs used for many natural languages. In the articulation analysis, special attention was paid to vowels, which give rise to various contradictions in the Kazakh letter. It is proposed to use a new classification of vowels according to four binary features, rather than the traditional classification according to three binary features. Acoustic analysis uses the method of formant analysis, which is aimed at identifying certain formants in the spectrogram. The formant is obtained using a spectrograph. Quantitatively, the formants correspond to the maxima in the speech spectrum and usually appear on spectrograms as horizontal bands. After determining the composition and classification of the sound system of the Kazakh language, two variants of the alphabet based on the Latin alphabet are proposed: the first one is based on the Turkish alphabet using diacritical marks; the second is based on the English alphabet using digraphs. The second option offers ways to solve problems that arise when using digraphs. In conclusion, information is provided on the ongoing and ongoing work in Kazakhstan related to the creation of smart systems in the Kazakh language based on the methods and technologies of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics, the results of which are reflected in the list of sources.

Linguistics EthnomedicineComputational Chemistry
Mini Review Article ID: igmin143
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Model for Clinical, Laboratory, and Genetic Prediction of Recurrent Ischemic Stroke against the Background of Laboratory Aspirin Resistance using Machine Learning
by Anastasia V AnisimovaSergey S Galkin, Anastasia S Gunchenko, Tatyana V Nasedkina and Igor V Vorobiev

The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of laboratory aspirin resistance; and to study the associations of genetic markers and clinical and laboratory parameters (including parameters of the platelet hemostasis) in patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke using machine learning methods to assess the ...prognosis of recurrent ischemic strokes. Clinical and laboratory data (including induced platelet aggregation) were analyzed from 296 patients with ischemic stroke who were treated in the stroke center of City Clinical Hospital No. 1 named after. N.I. Pirogov. The frequencies of polymorphic variants of the ITGB3, GPIba, TBXA2R, ITGA2, PLA2G7, HMOX1, PTGS1, PTGS2, ADRA2A, ABCB1, PEAR1 genes and intergenic region 9p21.3) in patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke, which were identified using hydrogel biochip technology, were determined. Using the developed machine learning model, additional clinical and genetic factors influencing the development of laboratory aspirin resistance and recurrent ischemic stroke were studied. In the future, the identified factors can be used for differentiated prevention of recurrent ischemic strokes.

Molecular Biology
Mini Review Article ID: igmin142
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Enforcement and Enlargement of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Endoplasmic Reticulum through Artificial Evocation of the Unfolded Protein Response
by Masaki Monguchi and Yukio Kimata

Upon dysfunction of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), eukaryotic cells provoke a gene expression program, namely, the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), leading to an increase in the size and function of the ER. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the UPR is modulated by the Hac1i protein, which is a transcription facto...r produced by ER stress. When the UPR is artificially triggered under non-stress conditions by artificial expression of the Hac1i protein, S. cerevisiae cells carry an enforced and enlarged ER, which allows us to obtain commercially valuable materials such as secretory proteins and functional lipids abundantly.

Molecular Biology
Research Article Article ID: igmin133
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Analytical Expressions of the Markov Chain of K-Ras4B Protein within the Catalytic Environment and a New Markov-State Model
by Orchidea Maria Lecian

The finite Markov chain to which there correspond the qualities of the conformational dynamics of the K-Ras4B proteins in the catalytic reaction is written. The corresponding Markov-Sates models are studied. The properties of the K-Ras4B processes Markov chain allow one to define a new two-state MSM for the analytical... description of the final-state transition. The time evolution of the eigenvalue corresponding to the final-state transition in the Galerkin description is written. The tools for the analytical calculations of the relative error are therefore prepared. New analytical formulations of the time evolution of the eigenvalue corresponding to the final-state transition are newly written from the experimental data and form the properties of the lag time in shaping the discretization error. The features of the discretization error are newly studied. A comparison with the experimental data is proposed.

Computational Biology Molecular BiologyBiophysics
Review Article Article ID: igmin130
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Indigenous Environmental Resilience: Decoding Ancient Rozvi Wisdom on Mountain Ecosystems as Disaster Management Solutions
by Lesley Hatipone Machiridza

Since time immemorial, Indigenous communities have always perceived the landscape as a complex web of living, physical, and spiritual things. These communities have always relied on their Indigenous knowledge systems (IKS), emphasizing ancestral burial grounds, mountains, caves, rivers, pools, forests, monuments, and o...ther cultural diacritics as symbols of place identity. In addition, myriad metaphors like taboos, legends, tales, folklore, myths, proverbs, stories, and practices, also constituted an integral part of Indigenous cultural and nature connections. This heritage was constantly imagined and configured to cement human-nature relations. However, the advent of colonialism severely violated this status quo, thereby causing deep environmental, political, and social crises. Through imposing a hegemonic scientific paradigm, knowledge compartmentalization, and capitalist aggrandizing practices, the original harmonious human-nature praxis premised on IKS was disrupted. To this day, the exclusionary colonial legacy and poisoned ‘sense of place’ remains our greatest threat to climate and environmental stability. Thus, this paper advocates for the recentralization of IKS as a valid way of knowing with already inbuilt human and natural disaster management solutions. By pivoting Rozvi narratives premised on five mountains, namely; Manyanga in Bubi district, Mavangwe, MunwewaMwari and Bepe in Buhera district, and Mutikwiri in Maungwe near Rusape town, all situated in former Butua/Guruuswa regions of Zimbabwe as case studies, the power of ancient wisdom as a holistic epistemic approach towards sustainable human-nature relations is explicated.

Ethnomedicine EthologyEcology
Review Article Article ID: igmin129
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Fred Vlès – Early Holistic Biophysicist and Pioneer of “Earthing”
by Marco Bischof

The paper reports on the life and works of Fred Vlès (1885-1944) and Paul Reiss (1901-1944), and Charles Laville (1877-1959) who worked in a similar field. Vlès was the founder of the first institute of biophysics in France at the University of Strasbourg, and Reiss was his pupil and associate. They worke...d in the time of 1910 to 1944 on the acid-alkaline balance and the reduction-oxidation (redox) potentials of the body fluids and tissues and their influence on the proteins and colloids of the “terrain”, along the lines given by the “milieu interne” (internal environment) or homeostasis concept by Claude Bernard. Vlès and Reiss were also electrobiologists and were some of the first scientists to investigate the physiological effects of electrical grounding where also the work of Charles Laville is relevant. In the conclusion we link this historical narrative to contemporary research.

Biophysics
Research Article Article ID: igmin128
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Influence of Polycarboxylate Superplasticizer on the Calorimetric and Physicomechanical Properties of Mortar
by Alya Harichane and Fatiha Belalia

The use of polycarboxylate ether superplasticizer PCE in the preparation of mortars and concretes influences the hydration kinetics and the amount of total heat released. This leads to a modification of certain properties of the mortar, namely workability, calorimetry and mechanical resistance. In this study two ether ...polycarboxylate superplasticizers with different chemical structures were used; they were incorporated at different dosages into a standardized cement-based mortar. The objective of this work is to study the effectiveness of these superplasticizers and to select the most compatible product with cement and the most suitable for use according to the climates of the country. The impact of superplasticizers on fresh cement was studied by measuring the Marsh cone flow time and calorimetric measurement. In the hardened state, the mechanical properties were provided by measuring the compressive strength. The results show that low dosages of ether polycarboxylate superplasticizer promote grain hydration and produce more heat. On the other hand, high dosages delay the contact of the cement grains with the mixing water and cause a reduction in the final heat released and a delay in setting. The ether polycarboxylate superplasticizer with high carboxylic density gives the best mechanical resistance compressive at 7 and 28 days.

Polymer Science
Research Article Article ID: igmin117
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Homologous Series of Chemical Compounds in Three-component Systems (Aa+ – Bb+ – Cc–) and (Zn2+ - Ge4+ - P3-) in Generalized Form
by Undalov Yu K

For the first time, a method for calculating formulas of homologous series of chemical compounds of the systems (Aa+ – Bb+ – Cc–) and {Zn2+ – Ge4+ – P3–} in a generalized form is presented. The calculation is confirmed by the literature experimentally obtained compounds: thirteen com...pounds of the system (Na+ – Ti4+ – O2–), seven – systems (Li+ – Ti4+ – O2–), five – systems (K+ – V5a+ –  – O2–), eight – systems (Ba2+ – Cu2+ – O2*). Homological series in (Aa+ – Bb+ – Cc–) have the following generalized form: A{t – k·r + nr – r)bcBracC{t – k·r + nr)ab and AtbcB{r – k·t + nt – t}acC (r – k·t + nt)ab.In (Zn2+ – Ge4+ – P3–) systems for the m-group the formulas of homologous series, that develops towards Ge3P4, have the following generalized form: Zn6tGe(6r – 6kt + 6n – 6t)P(8r – 8kt + 8n)  and for αm-homologous series – Zn6Ge3nP4(n + 1). A method for calculating formulas of homologous series of chemical compounds in a generalized form can be used for any system of chemical elements.

Inorganic Chemistry Molecular BiologyComputational Biology
Mini Review Article ID: igmin115
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Climate Changes and Mango Production (Temperature)
by Khalifa SM and Abobatta WF

The mango, known as the {king of fruits}, is commercially significant in many parts of the world. In addition to offering a delicious tropical flavor, mangoes are a great source of nourishment and can make eating a satisfying and healthy sensory experience. Even though mango farming is known to exist in more than 120 n...ations, just 15 of them are responsible for more than 1% of the world’s supply. More than 60% of the mangoes produced worldwide are grown in India, China, Thailand, Indonesia and Mexico. The effects of climate change on agriculture must take into account the increasing CO2 concentration, a significant contributor to climate change, as CO2 is essential to critical plant functions, including photosynthesis. The fluctuation of temperature represents another climatic factor that affects mango productivity. The primary challenge facing the mango industry is irregular cultivation. The mango flowering was negatively impacted by the erratic distribution of cold nights and relatively warm winters. Mango output is already being impacted by rising average maximum temperatures. Therefore, regardless of mango growers, geniuses, or consumers, rapid climate change should be a top priority. A benefit of selection and breeding operations to adapt to climatic change is the high genetic variety of mangoes.

Botany Evolutionary BiologyEcology
Research Article Article ID: igmin114
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

The Antioxidant and Antidepressant Properties of Dietary Proteins Derived from Egg and Bean Extracts and Their Acute Toxicity: A Journey from Nutrition to Pharmacognosy
by Amal El Hamsas El Youbi, Omaima Boudaia, Zineb Sekkout, Najat El Amrani and Driss Radallah

This research reveals the previously unexplored pharmacognostic potential of antidepressants found in nutrients derived from both legume and animal sources. Through preclinical investigations involving mouse models, the study focused into antidepressant and antioxidant activities of non-denatured and denatured protein ...extracts from beans and eggs. Non-denatured protein extracts from beans and eggs, at saturation levels of 40% and 80%, were examined as macronutrients, while denatured protein extracts at equivalent saturation levels were considered micronutrients. The study employed the DPPH and hydrogen peroxide tests to assess antioxidant activity, and the forced swimming test and sucrose preference test to evaluate acute and chronic mild antidepressant effects, respectively. The acute toxicity study revealed that macronutrients from eggs at 40% and 80% saturation displayed non-toxic effects (LD50 >5 g/kg), while those from beans, specifically at saturation of 80%, exhibited a relatively low level of toxicity (LD50 = 2.5 g/kg). Evaluation of antioxidant activity using the DPPH test yielded inconclusive results due to the influence of ethanol precipitation. In contrast, the H2O2 test demonstrated significant antioxidant potential in both macronutrients and micronutrients extracted from beans and eggs at all saturation levels. In investigating antidepressant properties, both macronutrients and micronutrients of bean and egg protein extracts at 40% and 80% saturation exhibited notable antidepressant effects, particularly the micronutrients at saturation of 80%. This antidepressant effect was characterized by a reduction in immobility time and an increase in sucrose preference.In conclusion, this study uncovers the multifaceted potential of protein extracts sourced from natural products, plant and animal origins, as agents for treating depression. It opens up new avenues for research, with implications ranging from neuroprotection to the management of depression, inspiring optimism for innovative approaches to mental health treatment.

Taxonomic Systems Organic ChemistryBehavioral Science
Research Article Article ID: igmin113
Cite

Open Access Policy refers to a set of principles and guidelines aimed at providing unrestricted access to scholarly research and literature. It promotes the free availability and unrestricted use of research outputs, enabling researchers, students, and the general public to access, read, download, and distribute scholarly articles without financial or legal barriers. In this response, I will provide you with an overview of the history and latest resolutions related to Open Access Policy.

Benzo[4’,5’]imidazo[2’,1’:6,1]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines: Past and Present
by AA Harutyunyan

Synthetic approaches to the construction of the heterocyclic benzo[4’,5’]imidazo[2’,1’:6,1]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine system based on heterocyclizations of substituted benzimidazoles and a new alternative strategy based on 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidinyl-5-propanoic acids are considered. The latte...r method has been shown to be a successful addition to previously described methods, since it allows one to bypass the significant limitations associated with the use of substituted benzimidazoles and allows the introduction of functional substituents at different positions of the heterocycle that are inaccessible by other methods. The available information on derivatives of this heterocyclic system and their biological properties is summarized.

Organic Chemistry Computational ChemistryBiochemistry